*********A*********
By Authority Of
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Legally Binding Document
By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code § 552(a) and
Part 1 of the Code of Regulations § 51 the attached document has been duly
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally
binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America.
HEED THIS NOTICE : Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance.
Document Name: IEEE 112: Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors
and Generators
CFR Section(s): 10 CFR 431.15
Standards Body: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
■1
illllli
IEEEStd112™2004
(Revision of
lEEEStd 1121996)
112™
IEEE Standard Test Procedure for
Polyphase Induction Motors and
Generators
■b
IEEE Power Engineering Society
Sponsored by the
Electric Machinery Committee
I :■ I
111 :"""'B
II mk
Will
mm
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 100165997, USA
4 November 2004
Print: SH95211
PDF: SS95211
Recognized as an IEEE Std 1 1 2™2004
American National Standard (ANSI) (Revision of
IEEE Std 1121996)
IEEE Standard Test Procedure for
Polyphase Induction Motors and
Generators
Sponsor
Electric Machinery Committee
of the
IEEE Power Engineering Society
Approved 12 May 2004
American National Standard Institute
Approved 9 February 2004
IEEESA Standards Board
Abstract: instructions for conducting and reporting the more generally applicable and acceptable
tests of polyphase induction motors and generators are covered.
Keywords: acceptance and performance testing, generators, induction, machines, motors,
polyphase
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, inc.
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 100165997, USA
Copyright © 2004 by the institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
All rights reserved. Published 4 November 2004. Printed in the United States of America.
IEEE is a registered trademark in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office, owned by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Incorporated.
Print: ISBN 0738139777 SH95211
PDF: ISBN 0738139785 SS9521 1
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Introduction
This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 1122004, IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase
Induction Motors and Generators.
This standard provides the basic test procedure for evaluating the performance of a polyphase induction
motor or generator of any size. Each revision of the standard since its 1964 introduction as an IEEE standard
has been to keep the standard current with improvements in instrumentation, with improvements in test tech
niques, with increased knowledge in the art of measurements, and with the constant change in the needs and
desires of the machine users and of those concerned with energy conservation and the like. Major portions of
the document have been rearranged to accomplish this and the user is cautioned to check any external refer
ences to particular clauses of previous versions tor the correct clause number in this version. Each individual
test is defined and each efficiency test method is now covered in more detail and stepbystep instructions
are presented. Standard symbols are now used for all quantities.
Notice to users
Errata
Errata, if any, for this and all other standards can be accessed at the following URL: http://
standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/updates/errata/mdex.html. Users are encouraged to check this URL for
errata periodically.
Interpretations
Current interpretations can be accessed at the following URL: http://standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/inteip/
index .html.
Patents
Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter
covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken with respect to the existence or
validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. The IEEE shall not be responsible for identifying
patents or patent applications for which a license may be required to implement an IEEE standard or for
conducting inquiries into the legal validity or scope of those patents that are brought to its attention.
Copyright© 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved.
Participants
The following is a list of the participants of the Electric Machinery Committee Working Group on this
standard:
Paul Anderson
Robert Bartheld (Liaison)
Paul G Cummings
Roger H. Daugherty
James H. Dymond
Franklin H. Grooms, Chair
Nirmal K. Ghai
John S. Hsu
Khursheed S. Hussein
Ziba Kellum
Joseph Kline
Bill Lockley
Walter!. Martiny
Venkatachari Rajagopalan
Steven J. Stretz
The following members of the individual balloting committee voted on this standard. Balloters may have
voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention.
Paul Anderson
William Bartley
Thomas Bishop
Thomas Blair
Steven Brockschink
Weijen Chen
Tommy Cooper
Mike Darby
Roger Daugherty
Byron Davenport
Gary Donner
James H. Dymond
James H. Edmonds
Ahmed ElSerafi
Amir ElSheikh
Gary Engmann
Jorge FernandezDaher
Trilok Garg
Nirmal K. Ghai
Franklin H. Grooms
Randall Groves
Bal Gupta
Paul Hamer
Gary Heuston
Ajit Hiranandani
Edward Morgan Jr.
George Kalacherry
Yuri Khersonsky
Geoff Klempner
Joseph Kline
Roger Lawrence
Timothy Lensmire
Lisardo Lourido
Antonio J. MarquesCardoso
Jesus Martinez
Walter J. Martiny
Thomas McCaffrey
Nigel McQuin
James Michalec
Gary Michel
Krste Najdenkoski
Arthur Neubauer
Nils Nilsson
Alvaro Portillo
Mad an Rana
James Ruggieri
Greg Stone
Shanmugan Thamilarasan
When the IEEESA Standards
membership:
Chuck Adams
H. Stephen Berger
Mark D. Bowman
Joseph A. Bruder
Bob Davis
Roberto de Boisson
Julian Forster*
Arnold M. Greenspan
Board approved this standard on 9 February 2004, it had the following
Don Wright, Chair
vacant, Vice Chair
Judith Gorman, Secretary
Mark S. Halpin
Raymond Hapeman
Richard J. Holleman
Richard H. Hulett
Lowell G. Johnson
Joseph L. Koepfinger*
Hermann Koch
Thomas J. McGean
Daleep C. Mohla
Paul Nikolich
T. W. Olsen
Ronald C. Petersen
Gary S. Robinson
Frank Stone
Malcolm V. Thaden
Doug Topping
Joe D. Watson
^Member Emeritus
Also included are the following nonvoting IEEESA Standards Board liaisons:
Satish K. Aggarwal, NRC Representative
Richard DeBlasio, DOE Representative
Alan Cookson, NIST Representative
Don Messina
IEEE Standards Project Editor
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
Contents
1. Overview 1
1.1 Scope 1
1.2 Purpose 1
2. References 1
3. General . 2
3.1. Power Supply 2
3.2 Types of tests 3
3.3 Standardized temperatures 4
3.4 Use of this standard  4
3.5 Precautions  5
4. Measurements 5
4.1 Electrical 5
4.2 Resistance 6
4.3 Mechanical 7
4.4 Temperature 7
4.5 Procedure 9
4.6 Safety 9
5. Machine losses and tests for losses 9
5.1 Types of losses 10
5.2 Stator I 2 R loss 10
5.3 Rotor f 2 R loss 11
5.4 Winding resistance — cold 12
5.5 Noload test 12
5.6 Load test... 13
5.7 Strayload loss 15
5.8 Temperature test 19
5.9 Equivalent circuit 24
5.10 Brushcontact loss. 32
5.11 Power factor 32
6. Determination of efficiency 33
6.1 General 33
6.2 Efficiency test methods 33
6.3 Efficiency Test Method A — Inputoutput 34
6.4 Test Method B — Inputoutput with loss segregation 35
6.5 Test Method Bl — Inputoutput with loss segregation and assumed temperature 39
6.6 Test Method CDuplicate machines 41
6.7 Test Method E or El — Electrical power measurement with loss segregation 46
6.8 Test Method F or Fl — Equivalent circuit 48
6.9 Test Method C/F, E/F, or El/Fl — Equivalent circuit calibrated with one load point 49
7. Other performance tests 50
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. v
7.1. Rotor voltage 50
7.2 Lockedrotor tests 50
7.3 Tests for speedtorque and speedcurrent curves 51
8. Miscellaneous tests , 54
8.1 Insulation resistance 54
8.2 Highpotential test 55
8.3 Shalt current and voltage 56
8.4 Bearing insulation resistance.... 57
8.5 Noise 57
8.6 Balance and vibration . 57
8.7 Overspeed 57
9. Forms 58
9.1 Test forms and support information 58
9.2 Form AMethod A 59
9.3 Form A2Method A calculations 60
9.4 Form BMethod B 61
9.5 Form B2Method B calculations 62
9.6 Form Bl Method Bl 63
9.7 Form Bl2Method Bl calculations 64
9.8 Form CMethod C 65
9.9 Form C2Mel.hod C Calculations 67
9.10 Form EMethod EEl 69
9.11 Form E2Method EEl calculations 70
9.12 Form FMethods F, FL C/R E/F, and El/Fl 71
9.1.3 Form F2Methods F, Fl, C/F, E/F, and El/Fl calculations 72
9.14 Test and equivalent circuit results 73
Annex A (informative) Bibliography 74
Annex B (informative) Typical report of test form for routine tests 75
Annex C (informative) Typical report of test form 76
Annex D (informative) Units of measure 77
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Standard Test Procedure for
Polyphase Induction Motors and
Generators
1. Overview
1.1 Scope
This standard covers instructions for conducting and reporting the more generally applicable and acceptable
tests of polyphase induction motors and generators. Many of the tests described may be applied to both
motors and generators, as needed, and no attempt is made to partition the test procedure into clauses and
subclauses that separately apply to motors or to generators. Whenever the term motor is used, it is to be
understood that it may be replaced by the term generator, if applicable. Likewise, whenever machine is
used, it may be replaced by either motor or generator, if applicable. Since polyphase power systems are
almost universally threephase systems, the equations in this standard have been written specifically for
three phases. When the test is performed on other than threephase power, the equations shall be modified
appropriately.
1.2 Purpose
Instructions for conducting and reporting the more generally applicable and acceptable tests are covered to
determine the performance and characteristics of polyphase induction motors and generators. Additional
tests, not specified herein, may be required to satisfy specific research or application needs. These proce
dures shall not be interpreted as requiring the performing of any specific test in a given transaction.
2. References
This standard shall be used in conjunction with the following standards. When the following standards are
superseded by an approved revision, the latest revision shall apply.
IEEE Std 43' M 2000, IEEE Recommended Practice for Testing Insulation Resistance of Rotating
Machinery. 1 ' 2
! IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, Piscalaway, NJ 08854,
USA (http://standards.ieee.org/).
The I BEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
IEEE Std 1 18™ 1978 (Reaff 1992), IEEE Standard Test Code for Resistance Measurements.
IEEE Std 1 19' M 1974, IEEE Recommended Practice for General Principles of Temperature Measurement as
Applied to Electrical Apparatus.
IEEE Std 120™ 1989 (Reaff 1997), IEEE Master Test Guide for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits.
3. General
3.1 Power Supply
3.1.1 Selection
Because the performance of an induction machine is dependent not only upon the value of the line voltage
and frequency but also on the wave shape and the balance in magnitude and phase angle of the line voltages,
correct data can be obtained only by careful measurement with accurate instrumentation and by employing a
suitable source of power.
3.1.2 Waveform
The power supply shall provide balanced voltages closely approaching a sinusoidal waveform. The har
monic distortion coefficient, THD, shall not exceed 0.05. The THD is defined as shown in Equation (1).
THD = ^ ^' (1)
where
E ] is the rootmeansquare value of the fundamental of the voltage wave, in volts (V),
E is the total rootmeansquare value of the voltage wave, in V.
3.1.3 Voltage unbalance
The voltage unbalance shall not exceed 0.5%. The percent voltage unbalance equals 100 times the maximum
voltage deviation from the average voltage divided by the average voltage.
Example: With line voltages of 220 V, 215 V, and 210 V, the average voltage is 215 V, the maximum devi
ation from the average is 5, and the unbalance equals (100 x 5)/215 = 2.3%.
3.1.4 Frequency
Eor general testing, the frequency shall be within ±0.5% of the value required for the test being conducted,
unless otherwise specified. Any departure from the specified frequency during the test directly affects the
efficiency obtained with Efficiency Test Methods A, B, and Bl. When these Methods are used, the fre
quency shall be within ±0.1% of the specified test value.
3 IEEE Std 1 191974 has been withdrawn; however, copies can be obtained from Global Engineering, 15 Inverness Way East, Engle
woodXO 801 125704, USAael, (303) 7922181 (http://global.ihs.corn/).
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
Rapid changes in frequency cannot be tolerated during testing because such variations affect not only the
machine being tested, but also the output measuring devices. Variations in frequency during a test shall not
exceed 0.33% of the average frequency.
3.2 Types of tests
3.2.1 Typical
Polyphase induction machines are normally given a routine test, but they may also be given additional tests.
For machine tests included in a typical routine test, refer to NEMA MG 12003 [B7] 4 parts 12 and 20.
A typical form for reporting routine test data is shown in Annex B. A typical form for reporting additional
test data is shown in Annex C.
3.2.2 Preliminary tests
The measurement of the winding resistance is commonly the first test performed. The resistance or the con
tinuity of all windings and circuits should be measured at this time.
The ambient temperature is measured using the procedure of IEEE Std 1 191974. If the machine has embed
ded detectors, these may be used to confirm that the winding is at the ambient temperature.
3.2.3 Idle running tests
Running tests without load are made for the determination of core loss and windage and friction losses.
Some other tests such as shaft voltage may also be performed under these conditions.
3.2.4 Tests with load
Tests with load are made for the determination of efficiency, power factor, speed, current, and temperature
rise. Some of the miscellaneous tests outlined in Clause 8 are also made with load. For all tests with load, the
machine shall be properly aligned and securely fastened. For readings to be used in performance determina
tions, the machine temperature rise shall be some value between 50% and 120% of the rated temperature
rise. The usual procedure is to take readings at higher loads first and then follow with readings at lower
loads.
3.2.5 Tests with rotor locked
It should be recognized that the testing of induction machines under lockedrotor conditions with polyphase
power involves high mechanical stresses and high rates of heating. Therefore, it is necessary that
a) The mechanical means of securing the machine and locking the rotor are of adequate strength to pre
vent possible injury to personnel or damage to equipment.
b) The direction of rotation is established prior to the test.
c) The machine is at approximately ambient temperature before the test is started.
The current and torque readings shall be taken as quickly as possible, and, to obtain representative values,
the machine temperature should not exceed rated temperature rise plus 40 °C. The readings for any point
shall be taken within 5 seconds after voltage is applied.
The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex A.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. At! rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
3.2.6 Choice of tests
A complete list of tests covered by this standard is given in the table of contents. Alternate methods are
described for making many of the tests suitable tor different sizes and types of machines and different condi
tions. In some cases, the preferred method is indicated. Also see 6.2. 1 .
The schedule of factory and field tests that may be required on new equipment is normally specified by
applicable standards or by contract specifications. The manufacturer's choice of method for factory or field
tests on new equipment will govern in lieu of prior agreement or contract specification.
3.3 Standardized temperatures
3.3.1 Reference ambient temperature
The reference ambient temperature shall be 25 °C. If the ambient temperature during any performance test
differs from the reference ambient, the performance determinations shall be corrected to an ambient temper
ature of 25 °C. The actual test temperatures shall be used in the separation of losses in the noload test and in
determining the strayload loss by the direct method.
3.3.2 Specified temperature
The efficiency of the machine, at all loads, shall be determined based on the machine being at the specified
temperature.
To accurately determine the values of some of the component losses with some efficiency test methods, it is
necessary that the actual test temperatures be used in the analysis. If these test temperatures are not equal to
the specified temperatures, appropriate corrections of the temperature dependent FR losses shall be made.
The specified temperature shall be determined by one of the following, which are listed in order of
preference:
a) The specified temperature is the measured temperature rise by resistance from a rated load tempera
ture test plus 25 °C. Rated load is the rating identified on the nameplate at a 1 .0 service factor.
b) The specified temperature is the measured temperature rise, as outlined in item a), on a duplicate
machine. A duplicate machine is defined here as one of the same construction and electrical design.
c) When the rated load temperature rise has not been measured, the specified temperature is selected
from Table 1 based on the class of the insulation system. If the rated temperature rise is stipulated to
be that of a lower class of insulation system than that used in the construction, the temperature value
listed for the lower insulation class shall be used as the specified temperature.
Preference c) shall not be used in Efficiency Test Method B; only preferences a) and b) are acceptable.
3.4 Use of this standard
After the test and test method are chosen, all necessary data may be obtained by following the instructions
and precautions given in the subclause describing the test. Many of these subclauses include alternate meth
ods for obtaining the necessary data. Unless otherwise specified, the manufacturer may choose the method
best suited to the facilities available. It is anticipated that the development of improved practices and new
equipment, such as electronic and automatic devices, will result in new or improved methods of carrying out
the intent of this test standard. New or modified methods may be used as substitutes when their results have
been shown to be reliable and consistent with those obtained by the methods given in this test procedure.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
Table 1 —Specified temperature for efficiency calculations when the machine rated load
temperature is not measured
„. pt . ,. Temperature in °C
Class of insulation  ^^ temperature induding
system  25°C reference ambient)
A
75
B
95
F
115
H
130
3.5 Precautions
CAUTION
Many of the tests described in these procedures subject the machine to thermal and/or mechanical stresses beyond
normal operating limits. To minimize the risk of damage to the machine, it is recommended that all tests be per
formed either under the manufacturer's supervision or in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
4. Measurements
4.1 Electrical
4.1.1 RMS quantities
All voltage and current measurements are rootmeansquare (rms) values, unless otherwise indicated.
4.1.2 instrument selection
Calibrated, high accuracy instrumentation and accessory equipment shall be used. Either analog or digital
instruments may be used in testing. Factors affecting accuracy, particularly with nonelectronic analog instru
ments, are
a) Loading of the signal source
b) Lead calibration
c) Range, condition, and calibration of the instrument
Since instrument accuracy is generally expressed as a percentage of full scale, the range of the instrument
chosen shall be as low as practical.
Electronic instruments are generally more versatile and have much higher input impedances than nonelec
tronic instruments. Higher input impedance reduces the need to make corrections for the current drawn by
the instrument. However, high input impedance instruments can be more susceptible to noise.
Common sources of noise are
— Inductive or electrostatic coupling of signal leads to power systems
— Common impedance coupling or ground loops
— Inadequate commonmode rejection
— Conducted interference from the power line
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
Good practice requires using shielded twisted pairs for signal leads, grounding the shield at only one point,
keeping the signal cables as far away as possible from power cables, and keeping the crossings at right
angles when signal and power cables do cross. All exposed metal parts of instruments should be grounded
for safety.
The instruments shall bear record of calibration, within 12 months of the test, indicating limits of the error
no greater than ±0.5% of full scale for general testing or no greater than ±0.2% of full scale when the test
results are for use with Efficiency Test Method B. When several instruments are connected in the circuit
simultaneously, additional corrections of the instrument indication may be required.
When suitable automatic data acquisition systems or highspeed recorders are available, they may be used.
Further information regarding the use of instruments is given in IEEE Std 1201989.
4.1.3 Instrument transformers
When current and potential instrument transformers are used, corrections shall be made for ratio errors in
voltage and current measurements, and for ratio and phase angle errors in power measurements.
The errors of the transformers used shall not be greater than ±0.5% for general testing or not greater than
±0.3% when the test results are for use with Efficiency Test Method B. When instrument transformers and
instruments for measuring voltage, current, or power are calibrated as a system, the errors of the system shall
not be greater than ±0.2% of full scale when the test results are for use with Efficiency Test Method B.
4.1.4 Voltage
Each of the linetoline voltages shall be measured with the signal leads connected to the machine terminals.
If local conditions will not permit such connections, the difference between the voltage at the machine ter
minals and the point of measurement shall be evaluated and the readings shall be corrected. The arithmetic
average shall be used in calculating machine performance from the test data.
4.1.5 Current
The line currents to each phase of the motor shall be measured, and the arithmetic average value shall be
used in calculating machine performance from the test data.
4.1.6 Power
Power input to a threephase motor or power output from a threephase generator may be measured by two
singlephase wattmeters connected as in the two wattmeter method, one polyphase wattmeter, or three single
phase wattmeters. Power readings shall be corrected for meter losses if they are significant.
AH power measurements and calculations, both electrical and mechanical, herein are in watts. On large
machines it may be more practical to work with power quantities expressed in kilowatts. If the unit of mea
sure is changed, take care that all affected values are properly converted.
4.2 Resistance
4.2.1 Instrument selection
Calibrated highaccuracy instrumentation shall be used. Either analog instruments (such as a Kelvin bridge)
or digital instruments may be used in testing.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
The instruments shall bear record of calibration, within 12 months of the test, indicating limits of the error
no greater than ±0.2% of full scale.
When a suitable automatic data acquisition system is available, it may be used.
4.2.2 Resistance measurement
The procedures given in IEEE Std 1 181978 and IEEE Std 1191974 should be used when measuring the
resistance of the stator winding (and the rotor winding on woundrotor machines).
4.3 Mechanical
4.3.1 Power
Mechanical power measurements shall be taken with the greatest care and accuracy. If a mechanical brake is
to be used, the tare, if present, shall be carefully determined and compensated for. If dynamometer output
measurements are used, coupling and bearing friction losses must be compensated for. Properly sized dyna
mometers should be used, such that the coupling, friction, and windage losses of the dynamometer (see the
note below) measured at rated speed of the machine being tested should not be greater than 15% of the rated
output of the machine being tested; and the dynamometer should be sensitive to a change of torque of 0.25%
of the rated torque.
NOTE— A dynamometer is defined as a device for applying torque to the rotating member of the test machine. It is
equipped with means for indicating torque and speed, and is not limited to a cradle base construction. An inline torque
transducer may be used to provide a direct measurement of torque at the test machine shaft 5
The eirors of the instrumentation used to measure mechanical torque shall not be greater than ±0.2% of full
scale.
4.3.2 Speed and slip
4.3.2.1 Instruments
Stroboscopies or digital tachometer methods shall be used to determine slip or speed. When a stroboscope is
used to measure slip, the power supply for the stroboscope shall have the same frequency as the motor
power supply.
When the speed is measured, the instrumentation used shall have an error of not greater than ±1 .0 r/min of
the reading.
4.4 Temperature
4.4.1 Methods of measuring temperatures
The temperature of various machine parts or coolant may be measured by the following:
a) Alcohol thermometer
b) Local temperature detector
c) Embedded detector
d) Winding resistance
Notes in text, tables, and figures are given for information only, and do not contain requirements needed to implement the standard.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ait rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
The temperatures measured by any of these methods can deviate substantially from those determined by the
other listed methods. Therefore, the temperatures so measured by one method shall not be interpreted in
relation to standards written in terms of the other methods.
For general information, refer to IEEE Std 1 191974 and IEEE Std 1™1986 [B5].
4.4.1.1 Alcohol thermometer
Alcohol thermometers are used to measure the temperature of accessible parts of the machine under test.
Temperatures taken by the alcohol thermometer method may be measured on the following parts:
a) Stator coils, in at least two places
b) Stator core, in at least two places
c) Ambient
d) Air discharged from frame or air discharge ducts, or internal coolant discharged to the inlet of cool
ers of machines with recirculating cooling system
e) Frame
f) Bearings (when part of the machine)
The alcohol thermometers should be located to obtain the highest temperature for the item being measured,
except for ingoing and discharge air or other coolant temperature, for which they should be placed to obtain
average values.
4.4.1.2 Local temperature detector
The local temperature of various parts of a machine can be determined using local temperature detectors
such as
a) Thermocouples
b) Small resistance thermometers
c) Thermistors
The maximum dimension of the detecting element of these local temperature detectors should not exceed
5 cm.
These detectors can be used to measure temperatures in the same locations as alcohol thermometers, see
4.4. 1 .1 , and are commonly used in areas on or within the machine that are not accessible to an alcohol ther
mometer. They are frequently installed as permanent parts of a machine and are available for use during
tests.
The detecting element should be located on or in close thermal proximity to the part at which the local
temperature is to be measured to obtain the highest temperature for that item, except for the incoming and
discharge air or other coolant temperature, for which it should be placed to obtain the average value.
Specially designed instruments should be used with local temperature detectors to prevent the introduction
of significant errors or possibly damaging the detector during the measurement. Because of the variety of
materials used in these detectors, take care to insure the instrument selected is suitable for the specific mate
rial used in the detector or is matched to the resistance value when resistance thermometers are used. Many
ordinary resistance measuring devices may not be suitable for use with resistance thermometers because of
the relatively large current that may be passed through the resistance element while making the
measurement.
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IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
4.4.1.3 Embedded detector
Embedded detectors, such as resistance temperature detectors (rtds) or thermocouples, are commonly used
on large machines to monitor the winding temperature during operation and are available for use during
machine testing. They are usually installed between coil sides within a stator slot. An rtd gives a reading that
is the average of the temperature of the two abutting coil sides over the length of the sensing element. A
thermocouple measures the temperature of the spot where the thermocouple junction is located between the
two coil sides.
The precautions on the selection of instrumentation in 4.4.1 2 also apply here.
4.4.1.4 Winding resistance
The average temperature of a winding can be determined by comparing the resistance of the winding at the
temperature to be determined with the resistance at a known temperature. This method utilizes the character
istic of the conductor material where, in the temperature range of interest, the winding resistance changes in
direct proportion to the winding temperature. See 5,2.1 .
4.4.2 Ambient temperature
The procedure of IEEE Std 1 191974 should be followed in measuring the ambient temperature.
4.5 Procedure
Whenever a series of increasing or decreasing readings of data are made, care should be taken in each case
not to overrun the desired setting to avoid the introduction of hysteresis losses caused by a reversal in the
direction of the test.
4.6 Safety
CAUTION
Because of the dangerous currents, voltages, and forces encountered, safety precautions shall be taken for all tests.
No attempt is made here to list or review the manifold general safety precautions that are well established through
out industry. However, this standard includes special safety precautions applicable to the particular tests described.
All tests should be performed by knowledgeable and experienced personnel.
5. Machine losses and tests for losses
This clause identifies the losses of an induction machine and describes tests and calculations to be used to
determine these losses and the machine performance characteristics. The results of these tests are used in
making the efficiency and performance determinations of Clause 6. All tests and procedures of this clause
are not required in all of the efficiency analysis methods. Refer to the specific efficiency test method of
interest in Clause 6.
Alternate test methods are presented where appropriate.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 11 22004  EEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
5.1 Types of losses
The losses of aa induction machine include:
— Stator l 2 R loss, see 5.2
— Rotor I 2 R loss, see 5 .3
— Friction and windage loss, see 5.5.4
— Core loss , see 5 .5 .5
— Strayload loss, see 5.7
— Brushcontact loss, see 5.10
Other individual tests or procedures are required to support some of the efficiency test methods. These
include:
— Shaft power, see 5 .6 . 1 . 1
— Dynamometer correction, see 5.6.1 .2
— Equivalent circuit, see 5.9
— Temperature test, see 5,8
5.2 Stator l 2 R loss
For a threephase machine, the stator I 2 R loss, P SIR , in watts is as shown in Equation (2).
P s/R = L5I 2 R = 3T 2 *, (2)
where
/ is the measured or calculated current per line terminal, in amperes (A),
R is the dc resistance, in ohms, between any two line terminals™ corrected to the appropriate
temperature, if required (see 5.2.1),
R\ is the per phase dc resistance, in ohms (see 5.9).
5.2.1 Resistance correction for temperature
Some of the test analyses require that the winding resistance be adjusted or corrected to another temperature.
With the winding resistance value, R a , available at a known temperature, t a , the resistance value at any other
temperature, t b , can be determined using Equation (3).
R h _ (3)
'« + *1
where
R a is the known value of winding resistance, in ohms, at temperature t a>
t a is the temperature, in °C, of winding when the resistance R a was measured,
t b is the temperature, in °C, to which the resistance is to be corrected,
R b is the winding resistance, in ohms, corrected to the temperature t b ,
Aj is 234.5 for 100% IACS conductivity copper, or 225 for aluminum, based on a volume
conductivity of 62%.
For other winding materials, a suitable value of k x (inferred temperature for zero resistance) shall be used.
1 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
When a winding resistance value is calculated for a different temperature, t a and t b shall be based on the
same method of measure. See 4.4. When any winding 1 2 R loss is determined at a temperature, the calcula
tion shall use a winding resistance value that is based on the winding being at an average (or uniform)
temperature. The specified temperature, the temperature at shutdown (measured by resistance) and the tem
perature when the cold resistance is obtained are all average temperatures. It may not be possible to obtain
average temperature readings during some tests (such as during a load test) and special procedures for eval
uating the average winding temperature using local detector readings may be necessary. One such procedure
is utilized in 6.4.2.4.
5.3 Rotor i 2 R loss
The rotor I 2 R loss, including brushcontact losses for woundrotor machines, shall be determined from the
slip using Equation (4) or Equation (5) as follows:
motor rotor / R loss = (measured stator input power  stator I"R loss  core loss) x s (4)
2 2
generator / R loss = (measured stator output power + stator / R loss + core loss) x s (5)
where
s is slip, in per unit (p.u), with synchronous speed as base speed, see Equation (8).
All power items are in watts (W).
5.3.1 Slip
The slip speed, in r/min, can be measured directly by stroboscopic means or it can be calculated from the
measured speed. This value then must be converted to a numeric or per unit value for use in the analyses.
The slip speed is the difference between synchronous speed and measured speed, in r/min [see
Equation (6)].
slip speed  n s + n t (6)
where
n v  120 x^ (7)
P
and
n s is the synchronous speed, in r/min,
n t is the measured speed, in r/min,
/ is the line frequency, in hertz,
p is the number of poles.
Slip expressed as a per unit quantity is
slip speed (in r/min)
synchronous speed (in r/min)
(8)
NOTE— It is assumed the number of poles is known. If not, the number of poles can be determined by using noload test
data and by rearranging Equation (7) to solve for p. (Multiply the input frequency times 120 and then divide by the mea
sured idle speed.) This calculation will result in a value very near an even number (0% to 4% high). Round this value to
the nearest lower even number (such as, 2,4, 6, etc.) and this is the number of poles in the machine.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Alt rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
5.3.2 Slip correction for temperature
The slip, in p.u., is directly related to the rotor resistance. Thus, the slip can be corrected for temperature
using the same basic relationship as for resistance and temperature. The corrected value of slip is used in
determining the rotor l 2 R loss in the final adjustments when using Efficiency Test Methods B, Bl, and C.
Use Equation (9) to correct the test slip measurements to the specified stator temperature.
where
s s is the slip, in p.u., corrected to specified stator temperature, t u
s t is the slip, in p.u., measured at stator winding temperature, t h
t s is the specified temperature for resistance correction, in °C, see 3.3.2,
t t is the observed stator winding temperature during load test, in °C,
k\ is 234.5 for 100% IACS conductivity copper, or 225 for aluminum, based on a volume
conductivity of 62% (based on rotor conductor material).
NOTES:
J —For other rotor winding materials, a suitable value oi k\ (inferred temperature for zero resistance) shall be used.
2— The values for t s and t t shall be based on the same method of measurement of temperature, see 5.2.1 .
5.4 Winding resistance— cold
With the machine at ambient temperature, measure the terminal to terminal winding resistance with the
machine connected in the configuration to be used in the efficiency testing. Measure and record all combina
tions, i.e., T1T2, T2T3, and T3T1 , to assure that the specific precise value needed in further analyses will
be available. Also measure and record the ambient temperature. See 3.2.2.
5.5 Noload test
This test is performed by running the machine as a motor at rated voltage and frequency with no connected
load. When separation of noload losses is to be accomplished, run this test and read temperature, voltage,
current, and power input at rated frequency and at voltages ranging from 1.25% of rated voltage down to the
point where further voltage reduction increases the current.
5.5.1 Bearing loss stabilization
Some motors may experience a change in friction loss until the bearings reach a stabilized operating condi
tion. In grease lubricated antifriction bearings, stabilization will not occur until there is no excess grease
present in the path of the moving parts. This may require a number of hours of running to completely stabi
lize the noload input power. Stabilization can be considered to have occurred whenever the power input at
noload does not vary by more than 3% between two successive readings at the same voltage at halfhour
intervals. This bearing loss stabilization test may not be necessary if a temperature test has been performed
prior to noload testing.
5.5.2 Noload current
The average of the line currents at rated voltage is the noload current.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
5.5.3 Noload losses
The measured input: power is the total of the losses in the motor at noloaci. These losses consist of the stator
I 2 R, friction (including brushfriction loss on woundrotor motors), windage, and core losses.
5.5.4 Friction and windage
The friction and windage loss may also be determined by performing a linear regression analysis using three
or more lower points of the power versus voltage squared curve. To determine the friction and windage loss,
subtract the stator I 2 R loss (at the temperature of the test) from the total losses (i.e., input power) at each of
the test voltage points and plot the resulting power curve versus voltage, extending the curve to zero voltage.
The intercept with the zero voltage axis is the friction and windage loss. This intercept may be determined
more accurately if the input power minus stator I 2 R loss is plotted against the voltage squared for values in
the lower voltage range.
5.5.5 Core loss
The core loss, P/ z , at each test voltage is obtained by subtracting the value of friction and windage loss
(determined in 5.5.4) from the input power minus stator fiR loss (determined in 5.5.4). A plot of core loss
versus voltage can be constructed for use in determining the core loss at any desired voltage.
5.6 Load test
Most of the efficiency test methods require that a load test be performed either to directly determine the effi
ciency as in Efficiency Test Method A or to determine the strayload loss as in Efficiency Test Methods B,
Bl, and C. The machine is coupled to a load machine and is subjected to loads at four load points approxi
mately equally spaced between not less than 25% and up to and including 100% load, and two load points
suitably chosen above 100% load but not exceeding 150% load. A spread in load test points is necessary to
determine the efficiency accurately over the entire load range of the machine and more than six load points
may be used if desired.
Readings of electrical power, current, voltage, frequency, speed or slip, torque, stator winding temperature
or stator winding resistance, and ambient temperature shall be obtained at each load point. In loading the
machine, start at the highest load value and move in descending order to the lowest.
The common loading means are as follows:
— Dynamometer. See 5 .6.1 .
— Direct loading without torque measurement. See 5.6.2.
— Duplicate machine loading. See 5.6.3.
5.6.1 Dynamometer loading
For this test, the machine is loaded by means of a mechanical brake or dynamometer (see 4.3.1) and tested as
described in 5.6.
This test should be performed as quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the machine during
testing.
For Efficiency Test Method B, the temperature of the stator winding shall be within 10 °C of the hottest
temperature reading recorded during the rated load temperature test on this or the duplicate machine prior to
the start of recording data for this test.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
5.6.1.1 Mechanical power
The shaft power, in W, of the machine under test at each load point is obtained from Equation (10) using the
test values of torque and speed. The torque may require correction for dynamometer losses. See 5.6.1 .2.
P =
2xn s T
60
/Co
(10)
where
P
n t
k 2
T
is shaft power, in watts (W),
is the measured speed or the speed calculated using measured slip, in r/min,
is 9.549 for torque in Newton meters (N*m),
is the torque , in Nm. See Equation (1 1) if dynamometer correction is required.
T = T t ±T D
(ID
where
T t is a measured machine shaft torque, in N*m,
Tp is the dynamometer correction from Equation (1 2), in Nm.
NOTE— In Equation (11), use the plus sign for motoring and the minus sign for generating. The terms motoring and
generating refer to the action of the machine under test.
5.6.1.2 Dynamometer correction
A dynamometer noload test combined with a machine noload test can be used to determine the dynamom
eter correction to compensate for coupling and bearing friction losses of the dynamometer. This test is not
generally necessary when the load on the test machine is measured using a torque transducer in line with the
shaft of the machine because the low coupling losses do not significantly affect efficiency. The machine is
operated as a motor at rated voltage while coupled to the dynamometer and all electrical power removed
from the dynamometer. The electrical input power, voltage, current, slip or speed, torque, and stator winding
resistance or stator winding temperature shall be recorded. The machine is then uncoupled from the dyna
mometer and operated at no load at rated voltage with the electrical input power, voltage, current, slip or
speed, and stator winding resistance or stator winding temperature again recorded. Test data from a noload
test point at rated voltage (see 5.5) may be used for the noload data when it is not practical to uncouple the
machine from the dynamometer for this test. The dynamometer correction, in N*m, is determined from
Equation (12).
k> x
PaPb
(12)
where
P A ~ (Pin A ~ PsiRA ~~ P h) x ~ s .4)
P B ~ \P'inB ~ Ps/RB ™ P h*
and
(13)
(14)
°For other units of measure, see Annex D.
14
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
To is the correction to be applied the load torque before performing the power calculation of 5.6.1 .1 ,
P inA is input power, in W, when the machine under test is operated as a motor when coupled to a
dynamometer with the dynamometer armature circuit open, (Test A),
Psira is the stator PR loss, in W, during Test A,
sa is slip, in p.u., during Test A,
Ta is the torque, in Nm, registered by the dynamometer during Test A,
iia is the measured speed or the speed calculated using measured slip, in r/min, during Test A,
PinB is the input power, in W, during a no load test at rated voltage, (Test B),
PsiRB is the stator PR loss, in W, during a no load test at rated voltage, (Test B),
P h is the core loss, in W, during a no load test at rated voltage,
ko is 9.549 for torque in Nm.
5.6.2 Direct loading with no torque measurement
To obtain the required data in Efficiency Test Method E, it is necessary to couple, belt, or gear the machine
to a variable load and then perform the test as described in 5.6. A reading of torque at each load point is not
required.
The stator winding resistance for each load point can be estimated by comparing the temperature rise
measured by an embedded temperature detector, a temperature sensor located on the stator coil end, or the
air outlet temperature rise, with corresponding temperature rise measurements obtained as steadystate
values during a temperature test. When no temperature test is performed on this or on a duplicate machine,
the calculations in the efficiency analysis are made with the stator winding resistance corrected to the total
specified winding temperature assumed for the test. See 3.3.2, item c).
5.6.3 Duplicate machine loading
The load test for Efficiency Test Method C utilizes two duplicate machines coupled together. Varying the
frequency of the voltage applied to one machine controls the load level and the direction of power flow
between machines. This procedure is presented in 6.6.
5.7 Strayload loss
The strayload loss is that portion of the total loss in a machine not accounted for by the sum of the friction
and windage loss, the stator PR loss, the rotor PR loss, and the core loss.
5.7.1 Indirect measurement
The strayload loss is determined indirectly by measuring the total losses, and subtracting from these losses
the sum of the friction and windage, core loss, stator PR loss, and rotor PR loss. The remaining value is the
strayload loss. The indirect measurement procedure is used in Efficiency Test Methods B, Bl , C, and C/F
(see 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, and 6.9).
5.7.2 Direct measurement
Direct measurement of the strayload loss is used in efficiency methods E, F, and E/F (see 6.7, 6.8, and 6.9).
The fundamental frequency and the highfrequency components of the strayload loss are determined and
the sum of these two components is the total strayload loss.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Al! rights reserved. 1 5
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
5.7.2.1 Strayload loss at fundamental frequency
The strayload loss occurring at fundamental frequency is determined by applying balanced polyphase
voltage to the statorwinding terminals with the rotor removed. The electrical input minus the stator I 2 R loss
at test temperature is equal to the fundamental frequency stray load loss. During this test, bearing brackets
and other structural parts in which current might be induced shall be in place. The currents used in making
this test and that described in 5.7.2.2 are identified as /,, with values established by Equation (15) for
magnitudes covering the range of loads from 0.25 to 1 .5 times rated load, as indicated by the appropriate test
procedure. Vary the applied voltage to obtain the established currents and record input power and current
and the winding temperature.
1, = J{P^lf) (15)
where
It is the value of stator winding current, in A, during strayload loss test,
Iq is the value of noload current, in A (see 5 .5 .2.),
/ is the operating value of stator line current, in A, for which strayload loss is to be determined.
5.7.2.2 Strayload loss at high frequency
The stray load loss occurring at high frequencies is determined by a reverse rotation test. With the motor
completely assembled, apply balanced polyphase voltages at rated frequency at the stator winding terminals.
The rotor is then driven by external means at or near synchronous speed in the direction opposite to the sta
tor field rotation and the electrical input to the stator winding is measured.
CAUTION
To prevent overheating during this test of machines with unidirectional cooling systems, it is recommended that
such machines be driven by an external means at or near synchronous speed in the normal direction for proper ven
tilation and that the power connections to the stator he reversed to have the stator field rotation opposite to that of
the mechanical rotation. Record the electrical input to the stator during the test.
The mechanical power required to drive the rotor is measured both with and without current in the stator
winding. A balanced polyphase voltage is applied to the stator winding to obtain the same values of current
magnitude as used in 5.7.2.1 . The magnitude of the currents must be the same. For woundrotor motors, the
rotor terminals shall be shortcircuited. At each current point, measure and record the mechanical power to
drive the motor, the electrical input power and c urrent, and the winding temperature. Record mechanical
power input at zero input current.
NOTEThe low power factors encountered during the tests specified in 5.7.2.1 and 5.7.2.2 make it imperative that phase
angle error corrections be applied to all wattmeter readings. Refer to IEEE Std 1201989.
5.7.2.3 Strayload loss calculation
The st ray load loss is determined by combining the above fundamental frequency and the highfrequency
components. The strayload loss, P$ L , in W, is shown in Equation (16).
P S l = Psu + P SI , (16)
where
f*SLs = (A ~ stator PR loss), in W, and is the fundamental frequency strayload loss,
1 6 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
P SLr = (P r  P m )  (P rr  P SLs ~ stator I 2 R loss), in W, and is the highfrequency loss,
P m is the mechanical power, in W, required to drive rotor without voltage being applied at stator
winding terminals,
P r is the mechanical power, in W, required to drive rotor with voltage applied at stator winding
terminals,
P rr is the electrical input, in W, to stator winding during reverserotation test,
P s is the electrical input, in W, to stator winding with rotor removed.
Stator I 2 R loss shall be calculated as in Equation (2) using the current and resistance at each point.
5.7.2.4 Smoothing the test data
Smooth the raw data; (P r  P m ) 9 P s and P rr \ from the tests of 5.7.2.1 and 5.7.2.2 using a series of three
regression analyses. Each regression analysis is of the log of a test power vs. the log of the test current. The
result of these analyses is shown in Equation (17) through Equation (39).
(17)
(18)
(19)
A is the y intercept on a loglog plot (a constant),
TV is the slope on a loglog plot (approximately 2),
l t is the observed line current during the stray loss test, in amperes.
If the data are accurate, each curve will conform to a squarelaw relationship between power and current.
Thus, the correlation factor from the regression and exponent for each curve both serve as indicators of data
accuracy.
5.7.2.5 Calculating strayload loss at a specified point
Determine an approximate value of rotor 2current /S corresponding to the rated value of stator line current,
/, as in Equation (20).
Pr~
■p m = M*/
P s :
= mi,)
Prr
= M'/
where
^Jpil (20)
where
/ is the rated value of stator line current, in A,
/o is the value of noload stator current, in A.
Using the value of rotor current 1\, calculate a value of stray load loss P'sl for threephase machines as
follows in Equation (21);
p*sl= A } (r 2 f ] + 2A 2 (r 2 f 2 ~A 3 (r 2 f 3 ~3x {r 2 f x (2/?,,/e lr ) (21)
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 1 7
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
where
P'sl is the value of strayload loss, in W, for approximate value of rotor current corresponding to rated
load,
7*2 is the approximate value of rotor current, in amperes, corresponding to rated load from
Equation (20),
R\ s is the stator resistance per phase, in ohms, during the rotor removed test at test temperature
(see 5.7.2.1),
R\ r is the stator resistance per phase, in ohms, during the reverse rotation test at test temperature
(see 5.7.2.2).
NOTE— The resistance values above are per phase values that are equal to one half of the linetoline values.
The value of strayload loss, Psl> for any load point is calculated as shown in Equation (22).
P SL =^f (22)
The value of rotor current for each load point to be considered in the efficiency analysis is determined by
Equation (23).
>i = V^o 2 (23)
where
/ is the value of stator line current, in A, for which strayload loss is to be determined,
}{) is the value of noload current, in A.
5.7.3 Alternate direct method for woundrotor motors
This method is used with Efficiency Test Methods E, F, and E/F (see 6.7, 6.8, and 6.9). In this method, the
rotor is excited with direct current, and the stator winding terminals are shortcircuited with ammeters
included to read the stator current. The rotor is driven by external means at or near synchronous speed. The
rotor excitation is adjusted until the current circulating in the stator winding has the value for which a stray
load loss determination is desired. The mechanical power required to drive the rotor with excitation, P r ^ and
without excitation, P m , is measured and the strayload loss, P$l, is calculated as shown in Equation (24).
P sl  p r  p m _ statorwinding/ 2 /? loss (24)
If six load points are used, the accuracy can be improved by plotting strayload loss vs, stator winding
current squared and by following a smoothing procedure similar to that used in 5.7.2.4. The stator I 2 R in
Equation (24) is at the temperature during the test.
5.7.4 Assumed strayload loss
An assumed value of strayload loss is used with Efficiency Test Methods El, Fl, and El/Fl (see 6.7, 6,8, and
6.9). If the strayload loss is not measured and it is acceptable by applicable standards or by contract
specifications, the value of strayload loss at rated load may be assumed to be the value as shown in Table 2,
For other than rated load, it shall be assumed that the strayload loss, Psl, is proportional to the square of the
rotor current and a value can be calculated using Equation (22) with P^l equal to the assumed value from
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
Table 2— Assumed values for strayload loss
IEEE
Std 1122004
Machine rating kW
Strayload loss percent
of rated load
190
1 .8%
91375
1 .5%
3761850
1 .2%
1851
and greater
0.9%
Table 2, P 2 equal to the rotor current corresponding to rated load, and h being the rotor current at the load
where the straypower loss is to be determined.
5.8 Temperature test
5.8.1 Purpose
Temperature tests are made to determine the temperature rise of certain parts of the machine above the
ambient temperature when running under a specified loading condition. Subclauses 5,8.2 through 5.8.5 are
guides for the test and for the treatment of the data.
5.8.2 General instructions
The machine shall be shielded from air currents coming from pulleys, belts, and other machines. A very
slight current of air may cause great discrepancies in the temperature test results. Conditions that result in
rapid change of ambient air temperature shall not be considered satisfactory for temperature tests. Sufficient
floor space shall be provided between machines to allow free circulation of air.
5.8.2.1 Measuring devices
Temperature measuring devices shall be in accordance with IEEE Std 1191974. At the start of the
temperature test, all instruments shall be checked to make certain that there are no appreciable instrument
errors due to stray field effects.
5.8.2.2 Temperature of rotors and other parts of totally enclosed machines
The temperature of rotors and other parts of totally enclosed machines, for which the thermometer method is
used, shall be obtained after shutdown by applying the thermometer to the hottest parts that can be made
quickly accessible by removing covers.
5.8.3 Loading method
The loading method for making the temperature test shall be one of the following:
a) Actual loading method
b) Primarysuperposed equivalent method
c) Forward stall equivalent method
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
5.8.3.1 Actual loading method
The actual loading method is one in which the machine is loaded as a motor or generator under the rated (or
desired) condition.
5.8.3.2 Primarysuperposed equivalent loading method
Primarysuperposed equivalent loading method is one in which the machine is operated at noload from a
main power source and with a lowvoltage auxiliary power of different frequency superposed. A typical
configuration is shown in Figure 1. The phase rotation of the auxiliary power shall be chosen to have the
same direction as that of the main power.
Generally, temperature rises are determined by running with the superposed power supplied at a frequency
10 Hz below rated frequency, and with the voltage so adjusted that the current to the machine is equal to the
rated value.
Rated
Frequency
Primary Power
Source
— moc?
Series
Transformer
To
Machine
Under Test
Lower Frequency
Auxiliary Power Source
Metering
Location
Figure 1— Typical connection for superposed equivalent loading
NOTES
1When the loading for the temperature test is the superposed equivalent loading method, the slip loss does not apply,
and a tested value of rotor PR loss, per 5.3, cannot be obtained. Therefore, when equivalent loading is used, calculated
rotor Aft s h a ]j be used in determining efficiency by the segregated loss method. See 6.6.
2Inasmuch as there are oscillatory torques applied to the stator and rotor of the machine supplied with power at two dif
ferent frequencies, vibration will be abnormal during this condition, and normal criteria for vibration do not apply.
Vibration should be monitored and compared against acceptable limits for the machine being tested. After the machine
has been heated, the auxiliary frequency can be removed and vibration can be measured with rated frequency and volt
age applied to determine the vibration of the machine operating at normal running temperature. The machine will cool
rapidly after removing the auxiliary frequency. Therefore, temperature should be monitored by thermocouple to ensure
that vibration is measured while the motor is within 25% of normal operating temperature.
5.8.3.3 Forward stall equivalent loading method
The forward stall (also known as forward short circuit) loading method is one in which the machine to be
tested is driven at rated speed in its normal direction of rotation by an auxiliary drive motor while the
terminals of the motor under test are connected to a reduced voltage fixed frequency supply with phase
sequence selected to give rotation in the normal direction. Generally, the supply frequency is 20% to 25%
less than the machine rated (nameplate) frequency. The auxiliary drive motor should have a power rating of
at least 10% that of the motor under test.
With the auxiliary drive motor driving the coupled system at rated speed, the voltage at the machine
terminals is adjusted until the line current equals the rated current. The machine under test is then operating
as an induction generator with a slip of approximately 25% (0.25 p.u.).
20
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
With the reduced voltage on the machine, the stator iron losses are lower than under actual loading
conditions of 5.8.3.1. To compensate for this difference, the test is supplemented by two noload
temperature tests at rated frequency, one at rated supply voltage and one at the stator voltage used during the
forward stall test. The difference between the stator temperature rises in these two tests is added to
temperature rise measured during the forward stall test and the resultant rise is to be considered as the total
temperature rise.
NOTE— During the load application phase, as the supply voltage is raised from zero, the current should first reduce and
then reverse. If the current increases without this initial reversal, the phase sequence of the machine relative to the sup
ply is incorrect. If this occurs, stop the test, change the phase sequence, and restart the test.
5.8.4 Procedure
The machine may be loaded by one of the methods outlined in 5.8.3. The loading may be determined by
direct measurement of output or input.
A machine having multiple ratings (such as a multispeed or oilwell service machine) shall be tested at the
rating that produces the greatest temperature rise. Where this cannot be predetermined, the machine shall be
tested at each rating.
A dualfrequency machine may be tested at whichever frequency is available. If both frequencies are
available, it should be tested at the frequency that results in the maximum temperature rise.
Unless otherwise stipulated by the efficiency test method, a machine having a service factor greater than 1 .0
shall be tested at the service factor load to establish that the machine meets insulation class temperature
limits, except when temperature rise at a specified loading forms part of the machine rating. However, the
temperature rise at 1 .0 service factor shall be used in calculating machine performance in accordance with
3.3.2.
When the temperature test is at the service factor load rather than rated load (1.0 service factor), the
temperature rise by resistance of the motor at rated load can be derived by varying the temperature rise by
the square of the current. For the efficiency calculations, the total temperature (specified temperature) will
be the rise at rated load plus 25 °C.
When the analysis shows that the temperature test was performed near but not at the rated load,
Equation (25) also may be used to adjust the test temperature rise to a rated load temperature rise. If the test
load is below rated load, this adjustment must be made.
Te mp er a ture Rise med — Te mp erature R ise iesx x
5.8.4.1 Initial conditions
rated
• 'test 
(25)
Temperature tests on continuously rated machines can be started with the machine at any temperature less
than rated temperature. Unless otherwise specified, a test on a shorttime rated machine shall commence
only when machine parts are within 5 C C of the ambient temperature.
5.8.4.2 Permissible overloading
On continuouslyrated machines, when a long time is required to attain steady temperature, reasonable (25%
to 50%) overloads during the preliminary heating period are permissible in order to shorten the time of test.
Any overload shall be removed before the temperature goes above the expected final temperature.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 21
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
5.8.4.3 Temperature measurement
The machine should he equipped with devices to measure the temperature of the windings, the stator core,
the incoming cold coolant, and the exhaust hot coolant. Each method of measurement, see 4.4, is best suited
for particular parts of machine. Thus, in a given test, it may be desirable to use all four methods to measure
the temperature in the various parts of the machine.
Temperatures taken by the alcohol thermometer method (see 4.4.1.1) may be measured during the
temperature tests and, if specified, after shutdown.
Local temperature detectors (see 4.4.1.2) may be used to measure the temperature of various parts of the
machine during the temperature test. When several local temperature detectors are used to measure the
winding temperature, the temperature measurements of all should be recorded, with the maximum of these
values reported as the temperature of the winding by local detector. Readings after shutdown are not
normally required
Temperatures of the windings of machines equipped with embedded detectors should be determined by the
embeddeddetector method (see 4.4.13) during the temperature test. Temperature measurements of all
embedded detectors shall be recorded, and the maximum of these values shall be reported as the temperature
of the winding by embedded detector. Readings after shutdown are not normally required.
The temperature of the stator (and rotor of wound rotor machines) winding shall be determined by the
winding resistance method (see 4.4.1.4) after shutdown (see 5.8.4.4 and 5.8.4.5). The resistance may be
measured between any two line terminals for which a reference value of resistance has been measured at a
known temperature. If equipment is available to measure the winding resistance during the temperature test,
this may be used if the results have the necessary accuracy.
Other temperature sensing devices on the machine such as bearing and/or lubricant temperature detectors
should also be noted and recorded.
5.8.4.4 Termination of test
The test shall be continued for the specified time (for machines not continuously rated), or until constant
temperature rises have been reached. For continuously rated machines, readings of machine input, machine
output (as applicable), and all temperatures (including ambient temperature) shall be taken at intervals of 30
minutes or less. For noncontinuously rated machines, readings shall be taken at intervals consistent with the
time rating. For continuous rated machines, the temperature test shall continue until there is 1 °C or less
change in temperature rise above the ambient temperature over a 30 minute period.
If the winding resistance is measured during the temperature test, see 5.8.4.3; take a reading at the time of
shutdown, provided the results have the necessary accuracy. Measurements after shutdown are not required.
5.8.4.5 Resistance at shutdown
The winding resistance shall be measured after shutdown and this shall be used to determine the final
temperature of the machine and its temperature rise. This measurement requires a quick shutdown of the
machine at the end of the temperature test and quick application of the leads from the resistance measuring
device. A carefully planned procedure and an adequate number of people are required to obtain readings
soon enough to give reliable data.
If the initial resistance reading is obtained within the time interval indicated in Table 3, this reading is
accepted as the resistance measurement. If the initial resistance reading cannot be made within the time
delay given by the table, it shall be made as soon as possible, and additional resistance readings shall be
taken at intervals of 3060 seconds for a minimum of 10 readings.
22 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
Table 3— Maximum time delay in resistance measurements
Machine rating
Time delay after
switching off power
(seconds)
KVA
k\\
50 or less
38 or less
30
Above 50 to 200
Above 38 to 150
90
Above 200
Above 150
120
A curve of these readings shall be plotted as a function of time, and shall be extrapolated to the time delay
given by Table 3 for the rating of the machine. A semi logarithmic plot is recommended, in which resistance
is plotted on the logarithmic scale. The value of resistance thus obtained shall be considered as the resistance
at shutdown. If successive measurements show increasing resistance after shutdown, the highest value shall
be taken. Where the first reading cannot be taken within twice the time delay given by Table 3, the time
shall be subject to agreement.
5.8.4.6 Care in measurement
Extreme care shall be taken to secure accurate resistance measurements because a small error in measuring
resistance will cause a comparatively large error in determining the temperature.
5.8.5 Temperature rise
When the machine is ventilated by the immediately surrounding air, the temperature rise is the observed
machine temperature minus the ambient temperature. When the machine is ventilated by air obtained from a
remote source or a heat exchanger, the temperature rise is the observed machine temperature minus the
temperature of the air entering the machine or exiting the heat exchanger when part of the machine.
Machines may be tested at any altitude not exceeding 1000 m and with cooling air temperatures between
I0°C and 40°C without correction of temperature rise.
NOTE— At higher altitudes, the temperature rise will be greater than at sea level. While an exact conversion is not avail
able, a commonly used method allows for the influence of altitude. For each 100 m above 1000 m, the temperature rise
is reduced by J % to obtain the rise expected at sea level .
5.8.5.1 Calculation of temperature
The temperature of the winding, using the winding resistance, is calculated using Equation (26).
x (^ + /c i) *
(26)
where
tt
Rr
Rb
is the total temperature of winding, in °C, when R } was measured,
is the resistance measured during test, in ohms,
is the reference value of resistance, in ohms, previously measured at known temperature t^ t
is the temperature, in °C, of winding when reference value of resistance /?£ was measured,
is 234.5 for 100% International Annealed Copper Standard (I ACS) conductivity copper,
or 225 for aluminum, based on a volume conductivity of 62%.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
23
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
For other winding materials, a suitable value of k\ (inferred temperature for zero resistance) shall be used.
The temperature obtained by using Equation (26) is the total temperature of the winding at the time of the
test. If this is the usable shutdown resistance reading, the results will be the total temperature of the winding
at the test ambient temperature. If this ambient differs from the reference ambient, see 3.3.1, adjust the total
temperature by subtracting the test ambient from the calculated total temperature and then adding 25 °C to
the difference value just obtained. If the temperature test was at the rated load, the resultant sum is the total
winding temperature in a 25 °C ambient and is the specified temperature to be used in the efficiency
analysis. See 3.3.2 a), if the test was at other than rated load, see 5.8.4 for the procedure to correct to rated
load.
5.9 Equivalent circuit
The operating characteristics in Efficiency Test Methods F and Fl (see 6.9) are calculated based on the
equivalent circuit of an induction machine shown in Figure 2. This circuit is also used in determining the
rotor current used in determining the stray load losses used in other efficiency test methods.
Figure 2 — Equivalent circuit
The machine quantities associated with the equivalent circuit and with Equation (27) through Equation (58)
are as follows:
V\ is phase voltage, in V
Vi is rotor phase voltage referred to the stator, in V
/' is frequency, in Hz
I\ is line or stator current, in A
h is rotor current referred to stator, in A
I m is magnetizing current, in A
If e is core loss current, in A
m is number of phases
R\ is stator resistance, in ohms
Ih is rotor resistance referred to stator, in ohms
Rf e is core loss resistance, in ohms
Gf e is core loss conductance, in Siemens
X\ is stator leakage reactance, in ohms
X2 is rotor leakage reactance referred to stator, in ohms
24
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
!EEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 122004
Xm is magnetizing reactance, in ohms
Bm is magnetizing susceptance, in Siemens
P is power, in watts
Ph is core loss, in watts
Pf is friction and windage loss, in watts
Q is reactive power, in vars
Z is impedance per phase, in ohms
Z2 is rotor impedance per phase referred to stator, in ohms
s is slip in p. u.
Subscripts are as follows:
= quantities pertaining to noload
L = quantities pertaining to impedance test
NOTES:
1 —For threephase machines, the per phase wye stator resistance is onehalf of the terminaltoterminal resistance.
2— For threephase machines, the wye phase voltage, V } , is the linetoline voltage divided by J 3 .
The machine parameters in the equivalent circuit are derived from test data recorded during a noload test of
5.5 and one of the impedance tests described in 5.9.1 . The equivalent circuit represents one phase of a three
phase, wyeconnected machine and is usable even if the machine under test has a delta internal connection.
Rotor voltage, current, resistance, and reactance values all are referred to the stator and are not true rotor
values but can be used throughout this standard wherever rotor parameters are specified.
Accurate prediction of machine characteristics in the normal operating range will depend primarily upon the
closeness by which R2 represents the actual rotor resistance to currents of low frequency and, secondarily,
upon the closeness by which X2 represents the actual rotor leakage reactance to currents of low frequency.
Therefore, the most careful procedure during testing to determine the rotor characteristics at low frequency
is imperative. Calculation results may be reported on Form 9.14.
5.9.1 Impedance tests
Readings of voltage, current, electrical input power, and stator resistance or stator winding temperature are
to be taken at one or more frequencies, voltages, and/or loads. These data are referred to as the impedance
data. If the machine being tested has a wound rotor, the rotor is to be shortcircuited for the test.
The tests for reactance shall be conducted at rated load current. It is important that the value of reactance
used in the equivalent circuit calculation is at the correct value of saturation and deep bar effect; otherwise,
the calculated power factor will be found to be higher than the true value. The reactance and impedance shall
be determined at the temperature of the machine at the time of the test. Resistance values shall be corrected
to the specified temperature before being reported as an equivalent circuit parameter.
The impedance data shall be determined from one of the following methods:
a) Method 1 —A threephase lockedrotor impedance test at maximum of 25% of rated frequency and
at rated current. See 5.9.2 for details.
b) Method 2— Threephase lockedrotor impedance tests at three frequencies; one at rated frequency,
one at approximately 50% of rated frequency, and one at a maximum of 25% of rated frequency, all
at rated current. Curves shall be developed from these three test points and used to determine the
values of total reactance and rotor resistance at the required reduced frequency. See 5.9.3 for details.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 25
IEEE
Std 11 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
c) Method J— An impedance test at a slip speed approximating the desired reduced rotor frequency. In
this method, the motor is run uncoupled or coupled to a reduced load, and the voltage is reduced to
give approximately full load slip point/ The slip shall be measured carefully. See 5.9.4 for details.
d) Method 4— When none of the previous methods is practical, the following test may be utilized: a
threephase, lockedrotor impedance test at reduced voltage at rated frequency resulting in approxi
mately rated current and a test under load. See 5.9.5 for details.
5.9.2 Calculation of parameters— Method 1
5.9.2.1 Locked rotor test
The rotor of a squirrel cage motor is a symmetrical bar winding; therefore, the impedance of the motor is
practically the same for any position of the rotor relative in the stator.
The impedance of a woundrotor motor varies with the position of the rotor relative to the stator. It is
therefore necessary when performing a lockedrotor impedance test to determine the rotor position that
results in an average value of impedance. Before taking readings on woundrotor machines, the rotor shall
be shortcircuited. The angular distance through which it is necessary to observe the current variation shall
be determined by allowing the rotor to revolve slowly and observing the stator current, noting the distance
the rotor must move for the stator current to complete a cycle. For machines having an integral number of
slots per pole per phase in both rotor and stator, this distance will be equal to two thirds of a pole pitch for
threephase machines. For machines having fractional slot windings, the angular distance may be as much
as a full pole pitch.
The rotor of a woundrotor motor shall be blocked so that it cannot rotate freely, but can be moved; and the
impressed voltage shall be increased gradually until a current of approximately rated value is obtained.
Voltage and current on all phases shall be read and recorded, and the voltage in the different phases shall be
balanced. Holding the same voltage, the rotor shall be turned slowly and the minimum and maximum values
of current during a complete cycle shall be recorded. The rotor shall then be blocked for the impedance test
on the position that gives a current equal to the average of the minimum and maximum values previously
recorded.
For the lockedrotor test, take simultaneous readings of voltage and current in all phases and of power input
at several levels of voltage in order to establish the value with special care in the neighborhood of fullload
current. The stator winding temperature or stator winding resistance shall also be recorded. Care shall be
taken not to overheat the windings. Taking the highest readings first and the lower readings in succession
will help to equalize the temperature.
5.9.2.2 Calculations
Plot curves using volts as abscissas and the amperes and the input power as ordinates. The curve of amperes
vs. volts is usually a straight line, curving slightly upward at the higher values. On closed slot rotors,
however, there is also a distinct curve upward at low voltage. Derive the value of voltage and power input to
determine the total reactance and rotor resistance at the required level of current from these curves.
Determine the rotor resistance, /?2, and the total leakage reactance, X\ + Xn, from these data using the
Equation (27) through Equation (38). The calculations start by assuming a relationship between X\ and X%.
When design details are available, use the calculated ratio X\IX2 Otherwise, use
7 This test is described herein as being run at a reduced voltage. This is because it is recognized that when using the more readily avail
able small loading devices, a reduced voltage must be used to obtain the required full load slip test point. With suitable loading, this test
may be performed at higher voltages; up to and including rated voltage.
26 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
X,
~ l .0 for Design A, Design D, and wound rotor motors
= 0.67 for Design B motors
x,
y\ =0.43 for Design C motors
NOTEDesign A, BX, and D motors are defined in NEMA MG 12003 [B3].
Calculate the reactive power of complete motor at no load, Qo, and at the conditions of the impedance test,
Ql
<2o = J(mVM 2 PS
(27)
and
Ql = ^rnV x J XL YP\ (28)
The per phase voltage, V] , as used in Equation (27) and Equation (28) for a three phase machine is
T/ _ LinetoLine voltage
v \  r
ft
(29)
See Figure 2 for identification of the quantities and subscripts in the above and in the following equations.
Calculate the magnetizing reactance Xm
Xm ~
m V\ i
u x
v xj
Calculate the stator leakage reactance X\ at test frequency.
X\L =
Ql
\( x \\ x \
mf L x
W^W*' 1
x 2 i X M .
_\x 2 J x M _
Determine the stator leakage reactance at rated frequency.
x, = L xjf 1L
JL
Equation (30), Equation (31), and Equation (32) may be solved as follows:
1) Solve Equation (30) for Xm, assuming a value of X\/Xm and X\
2) Solve Equation (31) for X\l, using the same value of X\/Xm as above
(30)
(31)
(32)
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ail rights reserved.
27
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
3) Solve Equation (32) for X\
4) Solve Equation (30) for Xm, using X\ from Equation (32) and a ratio of X\IXm from Equation (30)
and Equation (32)
5) Continue iteration solution until stable values of X\ and X^f are obtained within 0.1%
B M = y (33)
X 2L = ^± (34)
®
A
X 2 = jrxX 2L (35)
G A x (i + ^) 2 (36)
/l mV] Q \ Xj
where
Ph is the total core loss, in W, as determined in 5.5.5.
(37)
Rfe
=
1
G fe
RlL
=
W? #
't**)"{>+%)'fjd'*<xM m
where
R]L is equal to 1/2 of the linetoline stator winding resistance, in ohms, at test temperature.
Correct R\i and i?2L to the specified temperature using Equation (3) and identify as R\ and Ri
5.9.3 Calculation of parameters— Method 2
When using Method 2, perform the tests in 5.9.1 and use the calculation procedure in 5.9.2.2 to find the rotor
resistance, R21 and total leakage reactance, X\i + X^l, at each of the three frequencies. Develop curves of
the values of rotor resistance and total leakage reactance vs. frequency that can be used to determine the val
ues at the required reduced operating frequency. The resulting value for rotor resistance and the values for
leakage inductances, after conversion to operating frequency, are then used in the equivalent circuit to deter
mine machine performance.
5.9.4 Calculation of parameters— Method 3
5.9.4.1 Reduced voltage slip test
The rotor resistance, R2, and the leakage reactance, A'2, at reduced frequency may be obtained from readings
(volts, watts, amperes, slip, stator winding temperature or stator winding resistance) at a slip speed
approximating the desired reduced rotor frequency. In this method, the machine is run uncoupled or coupled
to a reduced load and at a voltage that gives desired slip speed. A generator can be operated as a motor or
28 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
to a reduced load and at a voltage that gives desired slip speed. A generator can be operated as a motor or
can be coupled to driving equipment at a speed above synchronous speed that gives the desired slip while at
a reduced voltage to reduce the electrical output. The slip shall be measured very carefully.
5.9.4.2 Calculations
With data from the noload saturation test, see 5.5, calculate the total reactance per phase for each test point
and draw a curve of total reactance per phase vs. noload volts per phase. See example in Figure 3. The high
est point on this curve is used as the total noload reactance per phase, X\ + Xm, in calculations of the
reduced voltage slip test.
CD
/
F
D
C/)
C
O.
G /
s—
/
CD
Q_
—^
A
CD
O
c
03
CD
E
CD
S_
2
B
, A
O
A
A
Volts per phase
Figure 3— Total reactance from no load test
Quantities associated with Figure 3 are as follows:
A is rated volts.
B is volts at reduced voltage slip test.
CDE is curve of total reactance from noload test.
F is reactance corresponding to the highest point, D, of the test curve CDE. This value is used as the
total reactance, X x + X M , in calculations of the reduced voltage slip test.
G is total reactance, X] + X M , to be used in determining X M for use in the equivalent circuit calcula
tions after X { , X 2 , and R 2 are determined from the calculations of the reduced voltage test.
If the machine was operated as a motor in performing the reduced voltage slip test then the measured
electrical power when used in the calculations should be specified as having a positive value. If the machine
was tested as a generator, the measured electrical power used in the calculations is specified as having a
negative value, since it is opposite in direction to the power flow as illustrated in Figure 2. From the reduced
voltage slip test data, calculate the total impedance per phase, Z and the power factor, Pf\ (which will be
negative for generator operation). The phase angle, 8, of the input current, the total apparent resistance per
phase, R y and the total apparent reactance per phase, X, can be found as shown in Equation (39) through
Equation (41):
1 = arc cos (PF)
R  Zxcos(~9 1 )
X ^ Zx sin(ej)
(39)
(40)
(41)
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
29
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
The value of X determined from Equation (41) is used as a first estimate for the sum (X\ + Xj). A value for
the ratio {X\iXi) is obtained from design details, when known, or from 5.9.2.2. Based on this sum and ratio
an initial estimate for the value of X\ can be calculated as shown in Equation (42).
©
A', = X '— (42)
'♦©
Using the value of total noload reactance, (X\ + Xm)> from point D of Figure 3, the value of the magnetizing
reactance, Xm, can be approximated as shown in Equation (43).
X M = (X X +X M )X X (43)
From the data obtained from the reduced voltage slip test, calculate
V 2  7[ F iA(^i cos0 i Ar i sin9 i)] 2 + [ / i( /? ] sine i + ^i cos 9i)] 2 (44)
The resistance, R h shall be corrected to the temperature during the test before use in Equation (44) and in
following equations.
When calculating the phase angle 02, the value is that for the quadrant associated with the signs of the values
of the numerator and denominator terms in Equation (45),
6. = arctan L1 ~ J ! ] ^~~ (45)
V x l x (R x cose^^sine,)
K = y (46)
V 2
R fe = ± (47)
It h
G fe = ~ (48)
R fe
he = if ( 49 )
Calculate
I 2  a/[/jCOs0 / c sin8 2 /^cos9 2 ] + [/j sin0 1 +/ e cos8 2 + /^sin0 2 ]"
(50)
x 2 = y«™*>M' 2 .x» (51)
X = X } +X 2 (52)
30 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
Repeat Equation (42) through Equation (52) using the initial ratio of X\ 1 X 2 as used in Equation (42) and the
new value of X from Equation (52) and continue until stable values of X\ and X 2 are achieved within 0.1%.
Z 2 = h (53)
1 2
R 2 = sjizpif) (54)
Then, using the value of total reactance, (X + Xm), from the rated voltage noload test point C in Figure 3,
calculate
X M = (X,+X M )X l (55)
B M = f (56)
V 2 = ^[FjZ^^^ose^^sine^^ + ^^jsine^^cose,)] 2 (57)
o fe  ^ (58)
The values obtained in Equation (39), Equation (51), Equation (56), and Equation (58) are used in the
equivalent circuit calculations. The rotor resistance, R 2 , from Equation (54) and stator resistance, R\, shall
be corrected to the specified temperature using Equation (3) before being used in the equivalent circuit.
5.9.5 Calculation of parameters— Method 4
5.9.5.1 Lockedrotor and load point test
The following tests at rated frequency are required:
a) Noload test per 5 .5 .
b) Lockedrotor test at reduced voltage following the procedure in 5.9 .2. 1 .
c) Operating the machine uncoupled (or coupled to some reduced load) with the voltage reduced to
give approximately fullload slip. The slip must be determined very carefully.
For each test, record the volts, watts, amperes, slip, and stator winding resistance or stator winding
temperature.
5.9.5.2 Calculations
The values of X\, X 2 , Xm, and Rf e are determined from the noload and lockedrotor tests at rated frequency
following the procedure in 5.9.2. The value of R 2 at reduced frequency is obtained from the test data
recorded for operation at approximately fullload slip. The fullload slip is determined using nameplate
speed or design data.
After X\ has been determined from the lockedrotor impedance tests, see 5.9.2.2, the value of R 2 is obtained
from the fullload slip test as follows:
— Calculate V? using Equation (44).
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
— Calculate 02 using Equation (45).
— Calculate if e and I e using Equation (49) and Equation (46).
— Calculate h using Equation (50).
— Calculate rotor impedance, Zi using Equation (53).
Calculate Ri using Equation (54) and correct to the specified temperature using Equation (3).
5.10 Brushcontact loss
This measurement is used in efficiency methods F and Fl (see 6.8). For woundrotor machines, the brush
contact loss is determined by the product of the calculated secondary current and a voltage drop. The voltage
drop in all brushes of the same phase (between rings on a threering machine) may be assumed to be 1.0 V
for carbon or graphite brushes, and 0.3 V for metalcarbon brushes.
5.11 Power factor
5.11.1 Indirectly obtained
When determining the machine performance characteristics, the power factor of the machine shall be
determined for each load point using Equation (59).
PF  f (59)
J3 x VI
where
P is the machine electrical power, in W. input for a motor or output for a generator,
PF is the machine power factor,
V is input, linetoline voltage, in volts,
/ is input current, in A.
NOTE — The power factor, PF, obtained with Equation (59) is a numeric value, i.e., 0.x x. To obtain in percent form,
multiply the numeric value by 100.
5.11.2 Directly obtained
When using the two wattmeter method to measure input power of threephase machines, the power factor,
PF, in percent, may be checked by Equation (60).
PF  lQ0 — (60)
n + ir"*'
where
P\ is the higher reading,
Pn is the lower reading.
If the wattmeter for the Pn reading gives a negative reading, it shall be considered a negative quantity.
If a polyphase wattmeter is used, the values of the two wattmeter readings can be obtained by opening
separately each of the voltage coil circuits of the polyphase wattmeter.
32 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 122004
With pulsating loads, the power factor obtained by the direct method may be higher than that obtained by the
indirect method. The higher value shall be taken as the correct reading. The difference is due to the inclusion
in the voltamperes of the pulsating component of current, which is a function of the load rather than of the
machine itself. The power factor determined from the ratio of wattmeter readings is not affected by the pres
ence of pulsating current.
5.11.3 Equivalent circuit calculation
The power factor, in percent, may be determined from the equivalent circuit by multiplying the total
resistance by 100 and then dividing the result by the total impedance.
6. Determination of efficiency
6.1 General
Efficiency is the ratio of output power to total input power. Output power is equal to input power minus the
losses. Therefore, if two of the three variables (output, input, or losses) are known, the efficiency can be
determined by using Equation (61), Equation (62), or Equation (63).
efficiency = output power (6])
input power
A form commonly used for motors is:
efficiency = i"P"t power  losses (62)
input power
A form commonly used for generators is:
efficiency = output power (63)
output power + losses
Unless otherwise specified, the efficiency shall be determined for rated voltage and frequency. When a load
point is available at other than rated voltage, it may be combined with the equivalent circuit (Methods F and
Fl) to calculate the performance at rated voltage (see 6.9).
6.2 Efficiency test methods
The various methods of efficiency and loss determination are identified as follows:
a) Method A Inputoutput
b) Method B Inputoutput with segregation of losses and indirect measurement of stray load loss
c) Method Bl Inputoutput with segregation of losses, indirect measurement of strayload loss and
an assumed temperature
d) Method C Duplicate machines with segregation of losses and indirect measurement of stray load
loss
e) Method E Electric power measurement under load with segregation of losses and direct
measurement of strayload loss
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. 33
IEEE
Std 1 122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
f) Method El Electric power measurement under load with segregation of losses and assumed
value of strayload loss
g) Method. F Equivalent circuit with direct measurement of strayload loss
h) Method Fl Equivalent circuit with assumed value of strayload loss
i) Method C/F Equivalent circuit calibrated per Method C load point with indirect measurement of
strayload loss
j) Method E/F Equivalent circuit calibrated per Method E load point with direct measurement of
strayload loss
k) Method El /Fl Equivalent circuit calibrated per Method E load point with assumed value of stray
load loss
6.2.1 Guide for choice of efficiency test method
The inputoutput method (Efficiency Test Method A) should be limited to machines with ratings less than
l kW.
Horizontal machines rated at 1300 kW should be tested using Efficiency Test Method B, the inputoutput
method with loss segregation.
Vertical machines in the range of 1300 kW should be tested by Efficiency Test Method B if the machine
bearing construction permits. If the bearing construction does not permit Method B testing, Method E, El ,
F, or Fl may be used.
Machines rated higher than 300 kW should be tested by Efficiency Test Method B, Bl, C, E, El, F, or Fl
depending on the capability of the test facility. When proper test facilities are available, Method B should be
selected when the precision and repeatability of this method is required.
When practical, load test calibration of the equivalent circuit (Efficiency Test Method C/F, E/F, or El/Fl)
provides the confidence level of a full load test with the simplicity of determining performance at various
loads by solution of the equivalent circuit.
6.3 Efficiency Test Method A— Inputoutput
For this method, the efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the measured output power to the measured input
power, after temperature and dynamometer corrections, if applicable.
6.3.1 Test procedure
6.3.1.1 Cold resistance
With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient
temperature. See 5.4.
6.3.1.2 Rated load temperature test
Perform a rated load temperature test in accordance with 5.8.3.1 .
6.3.1.3 Test under load
The machine is loaded by means of a mechanical brake or dynamometer. See 5.6.1 .
34 Copyright © 2004 iEEE. All rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
6.3.1.4 Calculations
Performance is calculated as shown in Form A in 9.2 with details of the calculations shown in Form A2 in
9.3. Dynamometer correction should be made, if applicable, as shown in 5.6.1.2. The stator I 2 R loss and the
slip are to be corrected for temperature as indicated.
6.3.1.5 Temperature correction
The stator power is corrected to the specified temperature. The amount of power correction required is
determined by Equation (64).
p _ [2 R „J2 R (64)
where
P c is the necessary power correction, in W,
I t is the line current, in A, during the test,
R t is the average winding resistance, in ohms, at shutdown,
R s is Rj corrected to the specified temperature, see Equation (3).
The corrected stator power for a motor is the measured electrical power during the test plus P c . The
corrected stator power for a generator is the measured electrical power during the test minus P c .
The measured slip is corrected to the specified temperature using Equation (9) in 53.2.
6.3.2 Efficiency
Use the corrected electrical and the mechanical power values to calculate efficiencies. See 6.1 .
6.4 Efficiency Test Method B Inputoutput with loss segregation
All data are taken with the machine operating either as a motor or as a generator, depending upon the region
of operation for which the efficiency data are required. The apparent total loss (input minus output) is
segregated into its various components with strayload loss defined as the difference between the apparent
total loss and the sum of the conventional losses (stator and rotor PR loss, core loss, and friction and
windage loss). The value of strayload loss thus determined is plotted vs. torque squared, and a linear
regression is used to reduce the effect of random errors in the test measurements. The smoothed strayload
loss data are used to calculate the final value of total loss and the efficiency.
6.4.1 Test procedure
The individual tests that make up the Method B test method shall be performed in the order listed. It is not
necessary that these tests be performed in time succession with each immediately following the previous
one. The tests may be performed individually if the operating temperature of the machine is established
close to its normal operating temperature for the type of test prior to obtaining the test data.
6.4.1.1 Cold resistance
With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient
temperature. See 5.4.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 35
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.4.1.2 Rated load temperature test
A rated load temperature test, using a dynamometer, is to be performed in accordance with 5.8.3.1 . This test
is not required when a rated load temperature test had previously been performed on a duplicate machine.
Determine the specified temperature for the machine. See 3.3.2 a) or b).
6.4.1.3 Test under load
During this test, the machine shall be loaded by a dynamometer, see 5.6.1. The temperature of the stator
winding shall be within 10 °C of the hottest temperature reading recorded during the rated load temperature
test on this or the duplicate machine prior to the start of recording data for this test. Perform the test as
quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the machine during testing. When necessary, a
dynamometer correction test shall be made. See 5.6.1.2.
6.4.1.4 Noload test
Perform a noload test in accordance with 5.5 and 5.5.1 .
6.4.2 Calculations
6.4.2.1 Calculation form
Calculate motor or generator performance using Form B in 9.4 as a guide. The source of each of the items on
Form B or the method of its calculation is shown on Form B2 in 9.5.
6.4.2.2 Friction and windage loss
See 5.5.4.
6.4.2.3 Core loss
See 5.5.5.
6.4.2.4 Stator l 2 R loss
See 5.2.
This calculation of stator PR losses for each load point shall be accomplished using the average winding
resistance. If the average winding resistance is measured at each point during the load test, it can be directly
used in the determination of the stator PR loss at that load point. If the winding temperature is obtained by
means of local or embedded detectors, these readings shall be converted into an equivalent average value
before performing the loss calculations.
From the rated load temperature test of 6.4.1.2, obtain the winding resistance at shutdown and the
temperature at shutdown by both the winding resistance and by local detector. This should be the same local
detector being used during the load test. A value closely approximating the average temperature can then be
determined by Equation (65).
1 a = : — (6:>)
'TTD
where
36 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Al! rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 122004
tj\ is the developed average temperature, in °C, for use in the loss calculations,
tjR is the total temperature, in °C, from the shut down of the temperature test,
t t is the temperature, in °C, by detector during the load test,
trro » s the temperature, in °C, by detector from the shutdown of the temperature test.
The average resistance to be used for the stator RR loss can be determined by Equation (3) using Itr  hi,
Ia  t} ? and R a equal to the resistance value at temperature test shutdown. This calculation procedure is
repeated for each load point.
6.4.2.5 Rotor i 2 R loss
See 5.3. The first calculation of rotor PR loss is based on actual speed or slip measurement for each point
and no adjustments are required.
6.4.2.6 Apparent total loss
The apparent total loss shall be calculated separately for each load point by subtracting the measured output
in watts from the measured input in watts.
6.4.2.7 Strayload loss determination (indirect method)
The strayload loss shall be separately calculated for each load point by subtracting from the apparent total
loss the stator PR loss at the temperature of the test, the core loss, the friction and windage loss, and the rotor
PR loss corresponding to the measured value of slip.
6.4.2.8 Smoothing of the strayload loss
Smooth the strayload loss data by using a linear regression analysis based on expressing the strayload loss
as a function of the square of the load torque. The results of the analysis should be as shown in
Equation (66).
P SL = Af + B (66)
where
Psl is the strayload loss, in W, as plotted vs. torque squared,
T is the torque, in N*m,
A is the slope,
B is the intercept with the zero torque line.
If the slope is negative, or if the correlation factor is less than 0.9, delete the worst point and repeat the
regression analysis. If this increases the correlation factor to 0.9 or larger, use the second regression; if not,
or if the slope is still negative, the test is unsatisfactory. Errors in the instrumentation or test readings, or
both, are indicated. The source of the error should be investigated and corrected, and the test under load, see
6.4.1 .3. should be repeated.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 37
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.4.3 Corrections
6.4.3.1 Corrected strayload loss
The strayload loss curve of 6.4.2.8 is corrected by shifting the curve to go through the origin while
maintaining the original slope. The result of this correction is Equation (67), which is used to determine the
corrected value of stray load loss, Pslc* f° r eacn J° a d point.
Pslc^A? (67)
where
A is the slope of the of the Psl v $ T 1 curve defined in 6.4.2.8,
T is the torque, in Nm, for each load point as used in 6.4.2.8.
6.4.3.2 Temperature correction of stator l 2 R loss
A corrected stator PR loss for each of the load points is calculated using the average stator resistance
corrected to the specified temperature. Using resistance and the total temperature, by resistance, at shutdown
from 6,4.1 .2, correct this resistance to the specified temperature using Equation (3). Calculate the loss as in
5.2.
6.4.3.3 Temperature correction of rotor l 2 R loss
A corrected rotor PR loss for each of the load points is calculated as in 5.3, Equation (4) or Equation (5),
using the value of slip for each of the points corrected to the specified temperature, using Equation (9), and
using the corrected value of the stator I 2 R loss, from 6.4.3.2, for each load point. The slip used in
Equation (4) or Equation (5), is the slip used in 6.4.2.5 corrected to the specified temperature from the
developed average temperature from 6.4.2.4.
6.4.3.4 Corrected total loss
A corrected total loss for each of the load points is determined as the sum of the friction and windage loss
(see 6.4.2.2), the core loss (see 6.4.2.3), the corrected strayload loss (see 6.4.3.1), the corrected stator I 2 R
loss (see 6.4.3.2), and the corrected rotor fiR loss (see 6.4.3.3).
6.4.3.5 Corrected mechanical power
The corrected mechanical (output) power for each of the load points for a motor is equal to the difference
between the measured electrical (input) power and the corrected total loss. The corrected mechanical (input)
power for a generator is equal to the sum of the measured electrical (output) power and the corrected total
loss.
6.4.4 Efficiency
Use the measured electrical power and the corrected mechanical power to calculate efficiency. See 6.1 .
6.4.5 Power factor
The power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59). See 5.11.
38 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
6.4.6 Summary of characteristics
The summary of characteristics is a listing of the power factor, the efficiency, the speed, and the line current
at precise load points. To obtain this information, plot the values from the analysis for the line current,
speed, and efficiency vs. the output power. Fit curves to these data and pick off the values for the desired
load points. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input
watts as in Equation (59).
This summary of machine characteristics is included in Form B. See 9.4.
6.5 Efficiency Test Method B1 —Inputoutput with loss segregation and assumed
temperature
All data are taken with the machine operating either as a motor or as a generator, depending upon the region
of operation for which the efficiency data are required. The apparent total loss (input minus output) is
segregated into its various components with strayload loss defined as the difference between the apparent
total loss and the sum of the conventional losses (stator and rotor PR loss, core loss, and friction and
windage loss). The value of strayload loss thus determined is plotted vs. torque squared, and a linear
regression is used to reduce the effect of random errors in the test measurements. The smoothed strayload
loss data are used to calculate the final value of total loss and the efficiency.
6.5.1 Test procedure
The individual tests that make up the Method Bl test method shall be performed in the order listed. It is not
necessary that these tests be performed in time succession with each immediately following the previous
one. The tests may be performed individually if the operating temperature of the motor is established close
to its normal operating temperature for the type of test prior to obtaining the test data.
6.5.1.1 Cold resistance
With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient
temperature. See 5.4.
6.5.1.2 Temperature
A load test to determine temperature rise and total temperature is not performed in Efficiency Test Method
Bl . The specified temperature is determined as in 3.3.2 c).
6.5.1.3 Noload test
Perform a noload test in accordance with 5.5 including the bearing loss stabilization step of 5.5.1 .
6.5.1.4 Test under load
For this test, the machine shall be loaded by a dynamometer, see 5.6.1. The temperature of the stator
winding shall be within 10 °C of the specified temperature, as selected in 6.5.1.2. prior to the start of
recording data for this test. Perform the test as quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the
machine during testing. When necessary, a dynamometer correction test shall be made. See 5.6.1 ,2.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 39
IEEE
Std 11 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.5.2 Calculations
6.5.2.1 Calculation form
Calculate motor or generator performance using Form Bl in 9.6 as a guide. The source of each of the items
on Form B 1 or the method of its calculation is shown on Form Bl2 in 9.7.
6.5.2.2 Friction and windage loss
See 5.5.4.
6.5.2.3 Core loss
See 5.5.5.
6.5.2.4 Stator l 2 R loss
See 5.2. Calculate loss with winding resistance corrected to the test temperature.
6.5.2.5 Rotor l 2 R loss
See 5.3. This first calculation of rotor fiR loss is based on actual speed or slip measurement for each point
and no adjustments are required.
6.5.2.6 Apparent total loss
The apparent total loss shall be calculated separately for each load point by subtracting the measured output
in watts from the measured input in watts.
6.5.2.7 Strayload loss determination (indirect method)
6.5.2.8 Smoothing of the strayload loss
The strayload loss shall be separately calculated for each load point by subtracting from the apparent total
loss the stator I 2 R loss at the temperature of the test, the core loss, the friction and windage loss, and the rotor
PR loss corresponding to the measured value of slip.
Smooth the stray load loss data by using a linear regression analysis based on expressing the strayload loss
as a function of the square of the load torque. The results of the analysis should be as shown in Equation (66)
in 6.4.2.8.
If this analysis shows the slope as negative, or if the correlation factor is less than 0.9, delete the worst point
and repeat the regression analysis. If this increases the correlation factor to 0.9 or larger, use the second
regression; if not, or if the slope is still negative, the test is unsatisfactory. Errors in the instrumentation or
test readings, or both, are indicated. The source of the error should be investigated and corrected, and the test
under load, see 6.5.1 .4, should be repeated.
6.5.3 Corrections
6.5.3.1 Corrected strayload loss
The corrected value of strayload loss, Psic is determined using Equation (67) with T equal to the torque for
each of the load points and A is the slope of the function curve as determined in 6.5.2.8.
40 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Alt rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 122004
6.5.3.2 Temperature correction of stator l 2 R loss
A corrected stator PR loss for each of the load points is calculated using the average cold stator resistance
from 6.5.1 .1 corrected to the specified temperature. Calculate the loss as in 5.2.
6.5.3.3 Temperature correction of rotor l 2 R loss
A corrected rotor PR loss for each of the load points is calculated as in 53, Equation (4) or Equation (5),
using the value of slip for each of the points corrected to the specified temperature, using Equation (9), and
using the corrected value of the stator PR loss, from 6.5.3.2, for each load point. The slip used in
Equation (4) or Equation (5), is the slip used in 6.5.2.5 corrected to the specified temperature from the test
temperature at the applicable test point.
6.5.3.4 Corrected total loss
A corrected total loss for each of the load points is determined as the sum of the friction and windage loss
(see 6.5.2.2), the core loss (see 6.5.23), the corrected strayload loss (see 6.5.3.1), the corrected stator PR
loss (see 6.5.3.2), and the corrected rotor PR loss (see 6.5.3.3).
6.5.3.5 Corrected mechanical power
The corrected mechanical (output) power for each of the load points for a motor is equal to the difference of
the measured electrical (input) power and the corrected total loss. The corrected mechanical (input) power
for a generator is equal to the sum of the measured electrical (output) power and the corrected total loss.
6.5.4 Efficiency
Use the measured electrical power and the corrected mechanical power to calculate efficiency. See 6.1.
6.5.5 Power factor
The power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59) of 5.1 1 .
6.5.6 Summary of characteristics
The summary of characteristics is a listing of the power factor, the efficiency, the speed, and the line current
at precise load points. To obtain this information, plot the values from the analysis for the line current,
speed, and efficiency vs, the output power. Fit curves to these data and pick off the values for the desired
load points. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input
watts as in Equation (59).
This summary of machine characteristics is included in Form Bl . See 9.6.
6.6 Efficiency Test Method CDuplicate machines
This method of determining efficiency may be used when duplicate machines are available. The two
machines are coupled together and electrically connected to two sources of power, the frequency of one
being adjustable. Both power supplies must meet the requirements of 3.1 2 and 3.1 .3 and must be capable of
power delivery and power absorption. The stray load loss is determined by the indirect method.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 4 1
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.6.1 Test procedure
The individual tests that make up the Method C efficiency test shall be performed in the order listed. It is not
necessary that these tests be performed in time succession with each immediately following the previous
one. The tests may be performed individually if the operating temperatures of the machines are established
close to their normal operating temperature for the type of test prior to obtaining the test data.
For convenience in this analysis description, the machine connected to the constant rated frequency power
supply during the load test is identified as machine Ml and the machine connected to the variable voltage,
variable frequency supply is identified as machine M2.
6.6.1.1 Cold resistance
With the machines at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances of both machines
and the ambient temperature. See 5.4.
6.6.1.2 Noload tests of both machines
Perform noload tests on both machines. See 5.5.
6.6.1.3 Test under load
Couple the two machines together and arrange for machine Ml to be supplied from the rated frequency
power supply and for machine M2 to operate from the variable power supply. Machine Ml shall be loaded
as a motor and as a generator at line currents corresponding to four load points approximately equally spaced
between not less than 25% and up to and including 100% load, and two load points suitably chosen above
100% load but not exceeding 1 50% load. More load points may be used if desired. At each test point, obtain
readings of electrical power, current, voltage, frequency, and stator winding temperature or stator winding
resistance for both machines, along with speed and ambient temperature.
The test should start at the highest load point with machine Ml operating as a motor. While maintaining
rated voltage and frequency on machine Ml, decrease the frequency and voltage on machine M2 until the
line current for machine Ml is approximately equal to that at the highest load point. When the voltage on
machine M2 divided by the frequency of that voltage is equal to the rated voltage divided by rated fre
quency, this is a valid test point and the readings above should be obtained.
Directly after obtaining the above readings, increase the frequency and voltage on machine M2 above rated
frequency until the current on machine Ml, now operating as a generator, is the same as that recorded when
machine Ml was operating as a motor. When the machine M2 voltage/frequency value is correct, this is a
valid test point and the readings above should be obtained.
The two sets of readings, with machine Ml operating as a motor and as a generator, complete the test data
required for that load point. Then the test can proceed to the next test point and the data set with machine Ml
acting as generator can be collected first.
Continue in this manner takings readings for both directions of power flow until the sets of test data for all
desired load points have been recorded. Perform this test as quickly as possible to minimize temperature
changes in the machines during testing.
When performing the first portion of the test at any load point, it is not necessary that the current be adjusted
to precisely the predetermined current value; however, the current during the second portion of the test at
that load point shall match that of the first as closely as the test equipment will permit.
42 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
6.6.2 Calculations
6.6.2.1 Calculation form
Calculate the machine performance using Form C in 9.8 as a guide. Form C2 in 9.9 is provided to assist in
understanding each item in the test and in the calculations. Take care in the organization of the data. The
analysis requires the use of information and data from both machines in the calculations for both portions of
each load point. Form C is arranged to present all these data in the proper sequence.
6.6.2.2 Friction and windage
See 5.5.4.
6.6.2.3 Core loss
See 5.5.5.
6.6.2.4 Stator l 2 R loss
See 5.2.
The measured test temperature shall be used when adjusting the winding resistance for this loss determina
tion. The procedure for temperature refinement presented in 6.4.2.4 may be used if desired but only w r hen a
full load temperature test has been performed on one of the machines. Two calculations for each machine
are required for each load point, one during its motoring operation and the other during its generating
operation.
6.6.2.5 Rotor l 2 R loss
See 5.3. This calculation is based on the actual speed or slip measurement for each portion of each point and
no adjustments are required. Two calculations for each machine are required for each load point. Take care
that the proper power flow is observed. Using the description of a load point test in 6.6.1 3, machine Ml is a
motor and Equation (68) should be used while machine M2 is a generator and Equation (69) applies. For the
second half of each point, this switches with Equation (69) being applied to machine Ml calculations and
Equation (68) to machine M2 calculations.
The motor rotor l"R loss is:
motor rotor / R loss = motor slip x (motor input  stator J R loss  core loss) (68)
Where the last quantity, motor input  stator l^R loss  core loss, is the power across the air gap of the motor
and the motor slip, in p.u., is the observed slip or calculated from measured speed and frequency.
The generator rotor 1 R loss is:
generator rotor / R loss = generator slip x (generator output + stator / R loss + core loss) (69)
Where the last quantity, generator output + stator I"R loss + core loss, is the power across the air gap of the
generator and the generator slip, in p.u., is the observed slip or is as calculated from measured speed and
frequency.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 43
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.6.2.6 Strayload loss
6.6.2.6.1 Machine M1 operating as a motor
The combined stray load loss is determined by subtracting from the total measured loss (the difference
between input and output) the sum
windage losses of the two machines.
between input and output) the sum of the stator l 2 R losses, rotor l l R losses, core losses, and friction and
The strayload losses are assumed to be proportional to the square of the rotor current. The strayload losses
are as shown in Equation (70) and Equation (71).
For machine Ml (as a motor):
i,i . ,2 n i combined stray load loss , nfXX
motor stray load loss = motor rotor / R loss x * (70)
motor rotor I R + generator rotor FR loss
For machine M2 (as a generator);
generator load loss = (combined stray load loss)  (motor stray load loss) (71)
6.6.2.6.2 Machine M1 operating as a generator
Repeat the calculations of 6.4.2.4 through 6.4.2.6 with the reversed power flow. Machine M2 is now the
motor and its strayload loss is determined using Equation (70). Machine Ml is now the generator and its
strayload loss is determined using Equation (71).
6.6.2.6.3 Averaging
The preliminary value of the strayload loss of machine Ml is the average of the two values determined for
that machine in 6.6.2.6.1 and 6.6.2.6.2. The preliminary value of the strayload loss of machine M2 is the
average of the two values determined for that machine in 6.6.2.6.1 and 6.6.2.6.2.
The average of these two preliminary values shall be considered the strayload loss for use in the smoothing
process described in 6.6.2.7.
6.6.2.7 Smoothing of the strayload loss
Smooth the stray load loss data from 6.6.2.6.3 by using a linear regression analysis based on expressing the
strayload loss as a function of the square of the rotor current. The results of the analysis should be as shown
in Equation (72).
PsLa Vg = W lavg ?+B (72)
where
PsLavs is the average value of strayload loss, in W, as plotted vs. approximate rotor current squared,
A is the slope,
B is the intercept with the zero current line,
havg S the average value of rotor current, in amperes.
The value of rotor current, I2, for each direction of power flow (motoring and generating) is as shown in
Equation (73).
44 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS std 1 122004
(73)
where
/ is the observed value of stator line current, in amperes, (motoring or generating) for which
strayload loss is to be determined,
/o is the value of noload current, in amperes.
If this analysis shows the slope as negative, or if the correlation factor is less than 0.9, delete the worst point
and repeat the regression analysis. If this increases the correlation factor to 0.9 or larger, use the second
regression; if not, or if the slope is still negative, the test is unsatisfactory. Errors in the instrumentation or
test readings, or both, are indicated. The source of the error should be investigated and corrected, and the test
under load, see 6.6.1 .3, should be repeated.
6.6.3 Corrections
The correction on strayload loss could be applied to either machine; however, the corrections of other
losses are performed on machine Ml. The performance of machine M2 could be determined in a similar
manner if desired.
6.6.3.1 Corrected strayload loss
The corrected value of strayload loss is as shown in Equation (74).
Psu = Mhf ™
where
A is the slope of the of the P S i, vs. I 2 curve defined in 6.6.2.7,
1 2 is the rotor current, in amperes, for each load point as used in 6.6.2.7.
6.6.3.2 Temperature correction of stator l 2 R loss
A corrected stator 1 2 R loss for each of the load points is calculated using the average stator resistance cor
rected to the specified temperature. If a full load temperature test was performed, use the total temperature,
by resistance, at shutdown and correct the resistance taken at shutdown to the specified temperature using
Equation (3). When no temperature test is performed, correct the cold resistance in 6.6.1 .1 to the specified
temperature of 3.3.2 b) or 3.3.2 c), as applicable. Calculate the loss as in 5.2.
6.6.3.3 Temperature correction of rotor l 2 R loss
A corrected rotor I 2 R loss for each of the load points is calculated as in 5.3, Equation (4), using the value of
slip for each of the points corrected to the specified temperature, using Equation (9), and using the corrected
value of the stator I 2 R loss, from 6.6.3.2, for each load point. The slip used in Equation (4) or Equation (5),
is the slip used in 6.6.2.5 corrected to the specified temperature.
6.6.3.4 Corrected total loss
A corrected total loss for each of the load points is determined as the sum of the friction and windage loss
(see 6.6.2.2), the core loss (see 6.6.2.3), the corrected strayload loss (see 6.6.3.1), the corrected stator 1"R
loss (see 6.6.3,2). and the corrected rotor I 2 R loss (see 6.6.3.3).
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ail rights reserved. 4i>
IEEE
Std 11 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.6.3.5 Corrected mechanical power
The corrected mechanical (output) power for each of the load points for a motor is equal to the difference of
the measured electrical (input) power and the corrected total loss. The corrected mechanical (input) power
for a generator is equal to the sum of the measured electrical (output) power and the corrected total loss.
6.6.4 Efficiency
Use the measured electrical power and the corrected mechanical power to calculate efficiency. See 6A .
6.6.5 Power factor
The power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59), See 5.1 1 .
6.6.6 Summary of characteristics
The summary of characteristics is a listing of the power factor, the efficiency, the speed and the line current
at precise load points. To obtain this information, plot the values from the analysis for the line current,
speed, and efficiency vs. the output power. Fit curves to these data and pick the values off for the desired
load points. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input
watts as in Equation (59).
This summary of machine characteristics is included in Form C. See 9.8.
6.7 Efficiency Test Method E or E1 Electrical power measurement with loss
segregation
This test method measures the input power and determines the output power by subtracting the total losses
from the input. The total losses are equal to the sum of stator and rotor losses corrected to the specified tem
perature for resistance correction, core loss, friction and windage loss, and strayload loss.
6.7.1 Test procedure
6.7.1.1 Cold resistance
With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient
temperature.
6.7.1.2 Test under load
To obtain the required data, it is necessary to couple, belt, or gear the machine to a variable load and test per
5.6.2.
6.7.1.3 Noload test
Perform a noload test in accordance with 5.5.
6.7.1.4 Strayload test
The value of strayload loss at full load for use with Efficiency Test Method E is determined by the direct
method. Perform the test per 5.7.2 or 5.7.3. Efficiency Test Method El uses an assumed value from 5.7.4
and no test is required.
46 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
6.7.2 Calculations
6.7.2.1 Calculation form
Calculate motor or generator performance using Form E in 9.10 as a guide. The source of each of the items
on Form E or the method of its calculation is shown on Form E2 in 9.1 1 .
6.7.2.2 Windage and friction loss
See 5.5.4.
6.7.2.3 Core loss
See 5.5.5.
6.7.2.4 Stator t 2 R loss
See 5.2.
The stator I 2 R loss shall be corrected to the specified winding temperature. The stator winding resistance for
each load point can be estimated by comparing the temperature rise measured by an embedded temperature
detector, a temperature sensor located on the stator coil end, or the air outlet temperature rise, with corre
sponding temperature rise measurements obtained as steady state values during a temperature test. When no
temperature test is performed, the comparison is made with the total temperature assumed for the test.
6.7.2.5 Rotor l 2 R loss
See 5.3.
The slip value shall be corrected to the specified winding temperature before performing this calculation.
6.7.2.6 Strayload loss
With the full load strayload loss established by the test in 6.7.1 .4, the loss level for each of the load points is
determined by a ratio of the square of the rotor currents. See Equation (22). The rotor currents used at each
of these points is calculated using Equation (23).
6.7.2.7 Total losses and output power
The total losses of the machine are the sum of the windage and friction losses, the core loss, the stator I"R
loss, the rotor I"R loss, and the strayload loss.
The output power at the shaft for a motor is equal to the electrical input to the stator minus the above total
losses.
For a generator, the output power is equal to the electrical input power during the load test and the input
power at the shaft is equal to the test electrical power input power plus the above losses.
6.7.3 Motor/generator performance
The efficiency for each test point is calculated using the input and output values of 6.7.2.7. The values of
efficiency, line current, and speed may be plotted against load and values at specific load levels may be
selected for the machine performance report. The power factor for each of these specific loads is calculated
as in 5.11.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ail rights reserved. 47
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
6.8 Efficiency Test Method F or F1 —Equivalent circuit
When tests under load are not made, operating characteristics are calculated based upon the equivalent cir
cuit shown in Figure 2. The machine parameters in the equivalent circuit are derived from test data recorded
during a noload test and an impedance test. Accurate prediction of machine characteristics in the normal
operating range will depend primarily upon the closeness by which /?2 represents the actual rotor resistance
to currents of low frequency and, secondarily, upon the closeness by which X2 represents the actual rotor
leakage reactance to currents of low frequency. Therefore, the most careful procedure during testing to
determine the rotor characteristics at low frequency is imperative.
6.8.1 Test procedure
6.8.1.1 Cold resistance
With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient
temperature.
6.8.1.2 Noload test
Perform a noload test in accordance with 5.5. Prior to making this test, the machine shall be operated at no
load until the input power has stabilized. See 5.5.1 .
6.8.1.3 Impedance test
See 5.9.1.
6.8.1.4 Friction and windage loss
See 5.5.4.
6.8.1.5 Core loss
See 5.5.5.
6.8.1.6 Determine equivalent circuit
Determine the value of all parameters of the equivalent circuit. See 5.9.
6.8.1.7 Strayload loss
6.8.1.7.1 Test Method F
See 5.7.2 or 5.73.
6.8.1.7.2 Test Method F1
See 5.7.4.
6.8.2 Calculation form
The calculations start with the assumptions of slip values for each calculation point and proceed through
steps shown in Form F2, 9.13. After completion of the first series of calculations, the results shall be
reviewed and new slip values selected that may more clearly represent the desired load points. Repeat the
calculations to complete the summary of characteristics. Iterative calculations can be used to determine the
48 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
proper slip values. Forms F and F2 (see 9.12 and 9.13) are used for the performance calculations. The forms
are arranged on the basis of Xi and Xo remaining constant throughout the range of operation of the machine.
Should the curve of lockedrotor current vs. voltage depart from a straight line in the range of currents under
consideration in the test per 5.9.1 , each column of calculations in 9.1 2 shall use values of reactance obtained
from this curve for the value of /j calculated in the column.
6.8.3 Calculation of maximum torque
Maximum or breakdown torque in a motor can be approximated from the calculation procedure in 9.13
using the slip value shown in Equation (75).
s = R * (75)
R] + {X X +X 2 f
See Figure 2 for explanation of symbols.
6.9 Efficiency Test Method C/F, E/F, or E1/F1 —Equivalent circuit calibrated with
one load point
When a test point under load at a stator temperature of t t is available, the equivalent circuit derived in 6.8
can be calibrated by finding improved values for Ri and Xm The following procedure is used after initial
values for the equivalent circuits parameters in 9.14 have been determined:
a) Use Forms F and F2 (see 9.12 and 9.13), but start with the second line with an assumed value of
R2/S for the test load point and the value ofR\ based on stator winding temperature of t t . After reach
ing the calculation of stator power, check calculated value of input current and input power vs. mea
sured values of input current and input power.
b) Adjust R2/S and Xm and iterate until the calculated value of input power and input current both agree
with the measured value of input current and input power within 1%. Other circuit parameters
should not be adjusted. (Input power is primarily a function of /?2/s.)
c) Obtain R2 by multiplying the final assumed value of R2/S by the measured value of slip in per unit of
synchronous speed. This procedure establishes the value of Ri (without temperature correction) to
be used in calculating the load performance characteristics.
d) Correct R\ and Rj to the specified temperature, t s , using Equation (3), and determine performance at
desired load points following the format shown in 9.12.
6.9.1 Strayload loss
6.9.1.1 Test Method C/F
For Method C/F, the stray load loss shall be determined as follows:
a) For both the motoring and generating load points, determine the average value of strayload loss,
Psiawi following the procedure in 6.6.2.6.
b) Determine the average value of rotor current for both the motoring and generating load points using
Equation (73) for both calculations. The average of these two values is havg fo r use in
Equation (76).
c) The value of strayload loss, P$l> for any load point is then calculated as shown in Equation (76).
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 49
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
?SL = PsiaJr 1 ) 2 ( 76 )
where
PsLavg is the average value of strayload loss from step a),
1 2 is the rotor current, in A, determined by solution of the equivalent circuit for the appropriate load
point,
ha\% i s tne average value of rotor current, in A, from step b).
The value of stray load loss, P 'si, reported in 9.13 should correspond to a value of havg equal to the average
value of rotor current as determined from step b).
6.9.1.2 Test Method E/F
See 5.7.2 or 5.7.3.
6.9.1.3 Test Method E1/F1
See 5.7.4.
6.9.2 Calculations form
See 9.12 and 9.13.
7. Other performance tests
7.1 Rotor voltage
On woundrotor machines, the voltages shall be measured between all rotor terminals, with the rotor locked
and its windings open circuited and with rated voltage being applied to the stator. If any unbalance is
detected, it is usual practice to take readings with several rotor positions to determine an average.
7.2 Lockedrotor tests
7.2.1 Current
This test may be performed either to check for quality or to determine performance. When possible, readings
shall be taken at rated voltage and frequency since the current is not directly proportional to the voltage
because of changes in reactance caused by saturation of the leakage paths. When the test is made to check
the quality of squirrelcage machines, it is possible to omit the mechanical means of locking the rotor by
applying singlephase power of rated voltage and frequency to any two of the machine line terminals of a
threephase machine. With a threephase machine, the line current will be approximately 86% and the power
input will be approximately 50% of the corresponding values obtained with polyphase power. The values so
obtained may be compared with those measured on a duplicate unit that has been subjected to a complete
test.
7.2.2 Torque
The lockedrotor torque is taken as the minimum torque developed at rest in all angular positions of the
rotor. The torque may be measured with a scale or force transducer with a rope and pulley, or with a brake
50 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 122004
or beam or it may be measured directly using an inline torque transducer. Woundrotor motors are always
subject to variations in lockedrotor torque, depending on the angular position of the rotor with respect to the
stator. For squirrelcage motors, it is usual practice to lock the rotor in any convenient position. If the
lockedrotor torque is not measured directly as mentioned above, the approximate lockedrotor torque may
be calculated as shown in Equation (77).
where
T is torque, in Nm,
P s i is the input power to stator, in W,
Psir is the stator PR loss, in W, at the test current (see 5 .2),
Ph is the core loss, in W, at test voltage (see 5.5.5),
n s is the synchronous speed, in r/min,
C\ is a reduction factor to account for nonfund amenta! losses,
hi is 9.549 for torque in Nm.
NOTE— C, can be any value between 0.9 and 1 .0. Unless there is past experience to guide the tester, a value of .91 is
suggested.
7.2.3 Power
Readings of input power shall be taken simultaneously with those of voltage, current, and torque.
7.3 Tests for speedtorque and speedcurrent curves
7.3.1 Definitions
7.3.1.1 Speedtorque characteristic
The speedtorque characteristic is the relationship between torque and speed, embracing the range from zero
to synchronous speed for a motor and from synchronous speed to pullout speed for an induction generator.
This relation, when expressed as a curve, will include maximum (breakdown), pull up or pull out, and
lockedrotor torques.
For woundrotor motors, the torque and current shall be measured between synchronous speed and the speed
at which maximum torque occurs. The slip rings shall be shortcircuited for this test.
7.3.1.2 Speedcurrent characteristic
The speedcurrent characteristic is the relationship between current and speed. This curve is generally plot
ted on the same sheet as the speed torque curve, using a common speed scale for both curves.
7.3.2 Speedtorque and speedcurrent curves procedure
Any one of the methods listed in 7.3.2.1 through 73.2.4 may be used to obtain data for a speedtorque curve.
The selection of the method will depend upon the size and the speedtorque characteristics of the machine
and the testing facilities. In all four methods, sufficient test points should be recorded to ensure that reliable
curves, including irregularities, can be drawn in the regions of interest from the test data. It is important that
the frequency of the power supply be maintained constant throughout the test. For woundrotor motors, the
slip rings shall be shortcircuited for this test.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
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Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
Method 1 and Method 4 require the maintenance of constant speed for each reading. Therefore, they cannot
be used in regions where the torque of the machine increases with speed more rapidly than that of the load
ing device. From the results of the following tests, adjusted to the rated voltage, curves of torque and current
should be plotted vs. speed.
7.3.2.1 Method 1 — Measured output
A dc generator that has had its losses previously determined is coupled or belted to the motor being tested.
An ac power supply of rated frequency is connected to the motor terminals. The voltage should be as high as
can be impressed upon the motor terminals without excessive heating, at least 50% of rated voltage, if possi
ble. The speed of the motor for each test point is controlled by varying the load on the generator.
In this test, readings are taken at speeds between approximately 1/3 synchronous speed and the maximum
speed obtainable. The speed should be constant when the readings are taken, so that acceleration or deceler
ation power does not affect the results. At each speed setting, readings of voltage, current, and speed are
taken for the induction motor, and readings of armature voltage and current and field current are taken for
the dc generator. Care should be taken not to overheat the motor.
The accuracy of speed measurement is particularly important at low slip. All points should be read as soon
as the meters have settled, without waiting for the slow creep in the indications to disappear.
The total power output of the motor is the sum of the power output and losses of the dc generator.
The torque, 7\ at each speed is calculated as shown in Equation (78).
n
where
T is torque, in Nm,
Pqo is the generator output, in W,
Pql is the losses of the generator (including friction and windage), in W,
n is the test speed of motor, in r/min,
hi is 9.549 for torque in N*m.
At the speed for the test point, the values of torque and current are corrected to the specified voltage, V, as
described in 73.3.
7.3.2.2 Method 2— Acceleration
In the acceleration method, the motor is started with no load, and the value of acceleration Is determined at
various speeds. The torque at each speed is determined from the acceleration of the mass of the rotating
parts. Accurate measurements of speed and acceleration are an essential requirement of this method.
The acceleration to be used and the duration of the test are determined by the type of instruments that are
used to make the measurements. In any case, the accelerating time should be long enough so that electrical
transient effects in the instruments and in the motor do not distort the speed torque curve. The accelerating
time must also be long enough to permit recording the necessary number of mechanical and electrical mea
surements with sufficient accuracy for plotting the required curves (see 73.2).
To provide sufficient time for recording the data at each point, the accelerating time may be increased by
using a lower applied voltage or by coupling a suitable inertia to the motor shaft.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1122004
As the motor accelerates from rest to near synchronous speed, simultaneous readings are taken of lineto
line voltage for one phase, line current in one phase, speed, and time in seconds. A minimum of five sets of
readings should be taken during the accelerating period; however, more readings should be taken if possible.
If the motor's starting friction is high, or if more accurate data in the zero speed range are desired, the motor
can be started rotating in the reverse direction prior to application of power for the acceleration on which
measurements are to be taken.
If Method 3 (see 7.3.2.3) is to be used as a check, line power should be taken with a polyphase wattmeter or
two singlephase wattmeters at each speed point where data are recorded.
It may sometimes be necessary to take more than one run at different voltages in order to get satisfactory
readings throughout the curve, especially when there are appreciable cusps in the speed torque
characteristics.
The torque, 7\ at each speed is calculated from the acceleration using Equation (79).
rr J dn
k 2 dt
where
T is torque, in N*m,
./ is the moment of inertia of rotating parts, in kg * m 2 ,
(79)
is the acceleration at each speed, in revolutions per minute per second,
dn
It
ki is 9.549 for torque in Nm
At the speed for the test point, the values of torque and current are corrected to the specified voltage, V, as
described in 7.3.3.
7.3.2.3 Method 3lnput
In this method, the torque is determined by subtracting the losses in the machine from the input power. It is
a valuable check on the other methods, and is particularly useful when the machine cannot be unloaded to
determine torque by acceleration. In practice, the method is approximate because the stator losses cannot be
readily determined for the actual operating conditions and, therefore, must be approximated. This method is
also subject to error in the case of special machines that may have substantial positive or negative harmonic
torques that are not readily evaluated.
The machine is started as described in 7.3.2.2, except that it does not have to be unloaded. The input read
ings called for in 7.3.2.2 are plotted against the speed readings. The line voltage, line current, power, and
speed should be plotted vs. time. Average values of the zero speed readings from the locked test, as
described in 7.2.2, adjusted to the voltage at which the other readings were taken, should be included.
The torque, 7, at each speed is determined from the input power using Equation (80).
T fv (80)
r
"*2~
'V
r.{
X
Psi ~ Psir ~
p„
P S L,
P S Lr>< i
in
V fl s
where
T
is to
rqu
e, in N*m,
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 53
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
P s i is the input power to stator, in W ,
Psir is the stator/ 2 /? loss, in W, at the test current (see 5.2),
Pit is the core loss, in W, at the test voltage (see 5.5.5),
P$Ls *$ the fundamental frequency strayload loss, in W, at the test current (see 5.7.2.1),
Psu is the higher frequencies strayload loss, in W, at the test current (see 5.7.2.2),
n is test speed, in r/min,
n s is the synchronous speed, in r/min,
k2 is 9.549 tor torque in N*m,
Tf w is the motor friction and windage torque at test speed, in Nm.
NOTE— If the Psu component of stray load loss is not available, it may be assumed that the stray load loss is equal to
Psu If the stray load loss {Psu + PsLr ) na s been determined from a dynamometer test, the total value of strayload loss
may be used as the value of Psu; or, the value of Psu ma y he determined by the method outlined in 5.7.2.1 , and Psu
may be determined as the value of stray load loss minus the value of Psu •
At the speed for the test point, the values of torque and current are corrected to the specified voltage, V, as
described in 7.3.3.
7.3.2.4 Method 4— Direct measurement
The torque and current are measured as the machine is loaded at various speeds with a dynamometer or
mechanical brake. At each speed, simultaneous readings of voltage, current, speed, and torque are taken.
The test should be taken as near rated voltage as practical. If a reduced voltage is used, the values of torque
and current should be corrected to the specified voltage as described in 7.3.3.
7.3.3 Correction of data for tests performed at reduced voltage
When it is necessary to establish values of current and torque at rated voltage, based on speedtorque, speed
current, and lockedrotor tests made at reduced voltage, it should be recognized that, because of saturation of
the leakage flux paths, the current may increase by a ratio somewhat greater than the first power of the
voltage; and the torque may increase by a ratio somewhat greater than the square of the voltage. The rela
tionship varies with design; however, as a first approximation, the current is calculated as varying directly
with voltage, and torque with the square of voltage.
A more exact method of test requires determining the rate of change of current and torque with voltage by
establishing speed torque and speedcurrent curves for at least two, and preferably for three or more, values
of voltage. The reduced voltage test points should be plotted on log log paper and corrected to rated voltage
using a least square curve fit for maximum accuracy. On speed torque and speedcurrent curves, enough
points at various speeds must be corrected to provide true representation of the curve over the entire speed
range.
8. Miscellaneous tests
8.1 Insulation resistance
For maintenance purposes, insulation resistance tests are of value. All accessories, such as surge capacitors,
surge arresters, current transformers, etc., that have leads located at the machine terminals shall be discon
nected during this test, with the leads connected together and to the frame or core.
For test methods, see IEEE Std 432000.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
8.2 Highpotential test
8.2.1 General
Highpotential tests are tests that consist of the application of a voltage higher than the rated voltage for a
specified time for the purpose of determining the adequacy against breakdown of insulating materials and
spacings under normal conditions.
The test voltage should be applied when, and only when, the machine is in good condition and the insulation
resistance is not impaired due to dirt, moisture, or abrasion or other types of damage. See IEEE Std 432000.
8.2.2 Measurement
For measurement of highpotential test voltage, see IEEE Std 41995 [B6]. The voltmeter method of mea
surement is commonly used.
8.2.3 Connections
The highpotential test voltage shall be successively applied between each electric circuit and the frame,
with the windings not under test and the other metal parts connected to the frame. Interconnected polyphase
windings are considered as one circuit. All accessories such as surge arresters, current transformers, etc.,
that have leads located at the machine terminals shall be disconnected during this test, with the leads
connected together and to the frame or core. No leads shall be left unconnected during the test as this may
cause an extremely severe stress at some point of the winding.
8.2.4 Test voltage
The commonly specified highpotential test voltage for factory testing of new stators is 1000 volts plus 2
times the rated voltage of the machine. Likewise for new rotors of wound rotor machines the test voltage is
1000 volts plus 2 times the maximum voltage induced between collector rings. Refer to NEMA MG 1 2003
[B7] Part 12 and Part 20 to confirm the voltage level for the specific machine under test.
Since highpotential testing is stressful on winding dielectric components, it is recommended that initial
field highpotential test voltages be limited to 85% of the levels used for factory testing of new equipment.
For any further high potential testing, it is recommended the test voltage level be limited to a 75% level.
8.2.5 Voltage application
In performing the test, the voltage shall be increased to full value as rapidly as possible while still maintain
ing an accurate meter reading, and the full voltage should be maintained for 1 min. It should then be reduced
at a rate that will bring it to 1/4 value or less in not more than 1 5 seconds.
To avoid excessive stressing of the insulation components, repeated application of the highpotential test
voltage is not recommended.
WARNING
Due to the high voltage used, highpotential tests should be conducted only by experienced personnel, and ade
quate safety precautions should be taken to avoid injury to personnel and damage to property. For the procedures
recommended , refer to IEEE Std 4 1 995 [B6] .
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Std 1 122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
8.3 Shaft current and voltage
Shaft currents can flow in rotating machinery as a consequence of electromagnetically developed voltages in
the shaft or frame.
In electrical machines, any unbalance in the magnetic circuits, or in the electrical phase currents that encircle
a shaft, can create flux linkages with the rotating system. When the shaft rotates, these linkages can produce
an electric potential difference between shaft ends. This voltage is capable of driving a circulating current in
a shaft to frame loop by using two bearings to complete the circuit.
If the opposite drive end bearing (or both bearings) is/are isolated from the frame, the conducting path is
impeded by the insulation, and the circulating shaft current in that machine is inhibited. If only the drive end
bearing is insulated, however, the current may be able to circulate by using the opposite end bearing in con
junction with an uninsulated bearing in the interconnected equipment to complete the circuit.
8.3.1 Test to measure shaft potential for circulating shaft currents
In machines that have insulation on all bearings (or all but one bearing), a test can be conducted to detect the
presence of shaft potential while the unit is operating. This test can also be applied to machines that have
insulating properties in all bearing oil films.
The test is completed by measuring the shaft potential to the frame at each of the other bearings. A high
impedance oscilloscope should be utilized and connected with one lead grounded to the frame and the other
lead attached to a shaft brush. This brush is then applied to a shaft section near each bearing and the peak
voltages are measured. First, a shaft brush is used to short out the uninsulated bearing (or one bearing, if all
are insulated). This fixed brush is applied to the shaft near the bearing and connected to the frame with a
short piece of lowresistance conductor.
It is preferable to use a lowimpedance shielded conductor for the oscilloscope leads to minimize electro
magnetic interference. This shield should be grounded at one end only.
If an oscilloscope is not available for the test, a highimpedance voltmeter can be used. Both ac and dc volt
ages should be measured at each bearing. The peak voltage can be roughly approximated by adding the dc
level and 1.4 times the ac rms level. This estimated peak voltage, however, may be considerably below the
actual peak value.
An alternate method involves measuring the ac voltage with brushes contacting opposite ends of the shaft
while the machine is operating at rated voltage and speed.
8.3.2 Test to measure possible level of shaft current
This test can be conducted on machines as described in 8.3,1 . The procedure is identical to that of 8.3,1 , with
the exception that a lowresistance ammeter is used in place of the oscilloscope.
NOTE— In this test arrangement, the ammeter is being used as a lowimpedance, uncalibrated voltmeter. The meter
readings may not be a true indication of the current that might How should there be a breakdown of the lubrication film
in the bearing(s). This method may be useful if a history of results from similar tests is available.
8.3.3 Other methods
If special means for measurement of shaft currents, such as Rogowski loops, are a feature of the machine
under test, these may be used in lieu of or to supplement the above test methods.
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POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
8.4 Bearing insulation resistance
8.4.1 Method 1
The most reliable check on bearing insulation is performed with the unit at rest. If only one bearing is insu
lated, a layer of insulating paper should be applied under the uninsulated bearing journal to insulate the shaft
from the bearing. Couplings to adjacent units should be disengaged if they are not insulated.
A lowvoltage ohmmeter should be used to make a preliminary check at each insulated bearing. With one
ohmmeter lead applied to the shaft and the other to the frame (across the insulation), the bearing insulation
resistance can be measured.
On machines with two layers of bearing insulation and with a metallic separator between layers, this test
should be performed between the metallic separator and the machine frame. The test can be conducted while
the machine is running, but it is preferable to conduct the test with the machine at rest. The test should be
supplemented with a careful visual inspection to ensure that there are no possible parallel paths that are
uninsulated.
8.4.2 Method 2
A layer of heavy paper is placed around the shaft to insulate the journals of the uninsulated bearings. The
coupling of the driving or driven units should be disengaged, if it is not insulated. Then, from a 1 101 25 V
source with either a filament lamp suitable for the circuit voltage or a voltmeter of approximately 150 V full
scale with a resistance in the range of 100300 Q/V placed in series with the voltage source, two leads
should be run, one to the insulated bearing and the other to the frame (across the insulation). If the lamp fil
ament does not show color (or if the reading of the, voltmeter does not exceed 60 V), the insulation may be
considered satisfactory.
A 500 V megohmmeter may also be used. This is much more sensitive than the above method and may tend
to reject insulation, which, in reality, is adequate to prevent the small shaft voltage from causing injurious
current. See 8.4.1.
8.5 Noise
For noise (sound level) tests refer to NEMA MG 12003 [B7] Part 9 and IEC 600349 [B3J.
8.6 Balance and vibration
8.6.1 Rotor balance
Motor and generator rotors should be dynamically balanced with a half key in place.
8.6.2 Vibration
For vibration tests, refer to NEMA MG 12003 [B7] Part 7, IEC 6003414 [B4] or API Std 541 , 4th Edition
[B2].
8.7 Overspeed
When overspeed tests are performed, precautions shall be taken to protect personnel and equipment.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 51
IEEE
Std 1122004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
9. Forms
9.1 Test forms and support information
This test procedure does not require that the test forms presented must be used, however, the forms and
supporting information do show the sequence of tests that must be used and do guide the calculations with
equations using the line item numbers from the forms. It is expected that the test analyses will be accom
plished using computer programs and in many cases with data being obtained by electronic means and going
directly into the analysis program.
9.1.1 Summary of characteristics
A table or listing of the summary of characteristics is a part of each test form. With most of the test methods,
the values at specific load values are obtained from plots of the calculated values of the test points. From a
curve defined by these points, the values for the points of interest may be obtained. Load values of 25, 50,
75, 100, 125, and 150 percent of rated load are commonly used. Any other load of interest can also be
shown. The power factor here is calculated for each precise load point using the voltage, current, and power
obtained from the plotted data. The data plots mentioned may be a manual or a computer generated plot or
the required data values at the specific load points may be calculated from a computerized virtual curve if
such programs are available. Data summaries for Method F testing may be calculated for the precise desired
points; a plot of the data is not necessary.
58 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
9.2 Form AMethod A
Type
Frequency,.
_ Design _
. Frame _
_Rating .
_ Volts .
Degrees C Temperature Rise _
_ Synchronous r/min .
Time Rating
Phase „
_Serial No.
/Model No. _
Specified temperature. f v , in °C
Synchronous speed.n. in r/min
Stator Resistance. TerminaltoTerminal
Ohms @ °C
Test Point (Motoring) (Generating)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stator Winding Temperature, tt, in "C
Ambient Temperature, in °C
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
Frequency, in Hz
Observed Speed, in r/min
Observed Slip, in r/min
Observed Slip, in p.u.
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
Corrected Speed, in r/min
Torque, in Nm
Dynamometer Correction, in Nm
Corrected Torque, in Nm
Shaft Power, in W
Line Current, in A
Stator Power, in W
(a) Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at /,
(b) Stator f 2 R Loss, in W, at is
Stator Power Correction = (b)  (a)
Corrected Stator Power, in W
Efficiency, in %
Power Factor, in %
Performance Curve
Summary of Characteristics
Load, in % of rated
25
50
75
100
125
150
Power Factor, in %
Efficiency, in %
Speed, in r/min
Line Current, in A
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
59
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
9.3 Form A2Method A calculations
'type
Frequency _
Design
.Volts .
Degrees C Temperature Rise _
. Frame _
.Synchronous r/min _
Time Rating .
JRating ,
Phase „
„Serial No.
Model No. „
Specified temperature, / iV , (1 ) , in °C.
See 3.3.2.
Synchronous speed. n s ,
(2) , in r/min
Stator Resistance. Terminal toTerminal
(3) Ohms @ (4) °C See6.3.1 .1
Item
Test Point (Motoring)(Generating)
Source or Calculation
1
2

6
5
Stator Winding Temp, tt in °C
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
6
Ambient Temperature, in °C
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
7
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
8
Frequency, in Hz
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
9
Observed Speed, in r/min
#(9) = (2) (10)
10
Observed Slip, in r/min
#(10) = (2) (9)
n
Observed Slip, in p.u.
(11) = (10)/ (2)
12
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
See 5.3.2
13
Corrected Speed, in r/min
(13) = (2)x[l(12)]
14
Torque, in Nrn
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
15
Dynamometer Correction, in Nm
From calculation per 5.6.1.2
16
Corrected Torque, in Nm
For motoring: (16) = (14) + (15)
For generating: (16) = (14)  (15)
17
Shaft Power, in W
(17) = (16) x (13)/ 9.549
18
Line Current, in A
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
19
Stator Power, in W
From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3
20
Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at tt
*(20) = 1 .5 x (18) 2 x (3) x (LA, + (5)]/L*] + (4) J}
21
Winding Resistance at t s
Correct (3) using Equation (3)
22
Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at r s
(22)= 1.5x(l8) 2 x(21)
23
Stator Power Correction
(23) = (22) (20)
24
Corrected Stator Power, in W
For motoring: (24) = (19) + (23)
For generating: (24) = (19)  (23)
25
Efficiency, in %
For motoring: (25) = 100 (1 7)/(24)
For generating: (25) = 100 (24)/(17)
26
Power Factor, in %
(26) = 100 x (24) / [1 .732 x (7) x (18) J
# Enter the measured speed or measured slip for each test point on the proper line and use formulas provided to calculate the other
parameter.
* In (20) select/:] based on the stator conductor material. See 5.2.1.
Parentheses, (), normally used with equation numbers are not used here to avoid confusion with the form item numbers.
60
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
9.4 Form BMethod B
Type
Frequency.
_Desisn_
Volts
Degrees C Temperature Rise .
. Frame _
.Synchronous r/min __
Time Rating _
„Rating
Phase..
_Serial No. „
Model No. _
Cold St a tor Winding Resistance Between Terminals Ohms @ °C
Rated Load Temp. Test Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals Ohms @ °C in °C Ambient
Rated Load Temperature Test Stator Temperature Rise °C
Total Stator Temperature. /, °C in a 25 °C Ambient
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Ambient Temperature, in °C
Stator Winding Temperature. t v in °C
Frequency, in Hz
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
Speed, in r/min
Slip Speed, in r/min
Slip in p.u.
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
Line Current, in A
Stator Power, in W
Core Loss, in W
Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at/,
Power Across Air Gap, in W
Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
Total Conventional Loss, in W
Torque, in Nm
Dynamometer Correction, in Nm
Corrected Torque, in Nm
Shaft Power, in W
Apparent Total Loss, in W
Stray Load Loss, in W
Intercept Slope Correlation Fa
ctor
J oint Deleted
Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t x
Corrected Power Across Air Gap, in W
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
Corrected Speed, in r/min
Rotor f 2 R Loss, in W, at h
Connected StrayLoad Loss, in W
Corrected Total Loss, in W
Corrected Shaft Power, in W
Efficiency, in %
Power Factor, in %
The Summary of Characteristics shall be presented as with Form A in 9.2. For additional guidance, see 9.1.1 .
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
61
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
9.5 Form B2Method B calculations
Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (! ) Ohms @ __ __(2) °C From 6.4. U
Hoi Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (3) Ohms @ _(4) °C in (5) D C Ambient From 6.4.1.2
Raied Load Temp. Test Stator Temperature Rise (6) °C, (6) = (4)  (5)
(4)={[(3)/(1)]xl* ] +(2)1}~* ]
Total Stator Temperature, t s , (7) °C in a 25 °C Ambient, (7) = (6) + 25
If (6) & (7) are from duplicate, (3), (4) & (5) are N/A
Item
Description (Motoring)(Gene rating)
Source or Calculation
8
Ambient Temperature, in °C
From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3
9
Stator Winding Temperature, t h in °C
From each point, adjusted per 6.4.2,4
JO
Frequency, in Hz
From each test point, from 6.4.1.3
n
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
=1 20 x (10) / number of poles
12
Speed . in r/min
*=(n)03)
13
Slip Speed, in r/min
*=(11)(12)
14
Slip in p.u.
= (13)/ (11)
15
Line to Line Voltage, in V
From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3
16
Line Current, in A
From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3
17
Stator Power, in W
From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3
18
Core Loss, in W
From 5.5.5 at voltage equal to (15)
19
Stator f 2 R Loss, in W,
= 1 .5 x (16) 2 x R , Adjust R see 6.4.2.4
20
Power Across Air Gap, in W
= (17)(18)(19) for motor
= (17) + (18) + (19) for generator
21
Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W
= (20)x(14)
22
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
From 5.5.4
23
Total Conventional Loss, in W
= (18) + (19) + (21) + (22)
24
Torque, in Nm
From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3
25
Dynamometer Correction, in Nm
From test per 5.6.1 .2, if needed
26
Corrected Torque, in Nm
= (24) + (25)
27
Shaft Power, in W
= (26) x (12)/ 9.549
28
Apparent Total Loss, in W
= (.17) (27) for a motor
= (27)  (17) for a generator
29
StrayLoad Loss, in W
= (28) »(23)
Intercept (30) Slope (31) Correl
3tion Factor (321
. Point Deleted (33)
(30), (31 ), (32) & (33) from the linear regression ana
lysis of (29) & (26) entries as described in 6.4.2.8
34
Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
= 1.5x(l6) 2 x(3)x{LA ]+ (7)J/LAj + (4)J}
35
Corrected Power Across Air Gap, in W
= (17) (18) (34)
36
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
= (14) x LA' , + (7)]/^ +(9)j
37
Corrected Speed, in r/min
= (1.1) x [1.00 (36)]
38
Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
= (36) x (35)
39
Corrected StrayLoad Loss, in W
= (31)x(26) 2
40
Corrected Total Loss, in W
= (18) + (22) + (34) +(38) + (39)
41
Conected Shaft Power, in W
= (1.7) (40)
42
Efficiency, in %
= 100(40/(17) for a motor
= 100(17)/(41) for a generator
43
Power Factor, in %
= 100 x (17)/ [1.732 x (15) x (16)]
* Enter the measured speed or measured slip speed for each test point on the proper line and use the formula provided to calculate the
other parameter. In (4), (19), (34), and (36), select k] based on conductor material. See 5.2.1 and 5.3.2. See 9.1.1 for Summary of
Characteristics.
62
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
9.6 Form B1~Method B1
Type
Frequency.
_Design_
_ Volts .
Degrees C Temperature Rise _
_ Frame _
_ Synchronous r/min _
Time Rating,
_Ralirm .
.Phase.
.Serial No. .
_Model No..
Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals Ohms @ C C
S pec i fi ed S t ator Te m pe ra tu re . / „ ° C i n a 25 ° C A mbi en t
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Ambient Temperature, in °C
Stator Winding Temp, (Y r ), in °C
Frequency, in Hz
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
Speed, in r/min
Slip Speed, in r/min
Slip in p.u.
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
Line Current, in A
Stator Power, in W
Core Loss , in W
Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at/;
Power Across Air Gap, in W
Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W
Fri c ti on a nd Wi n da ge Lo s s , i n W
Total Conventional Loss, in W
Torque, in Nm
Dynamometer Correction, in Nm
Co rrec ted To rq u e , i n N  m
Shaft Power, in W
Apparent Total Loss, in W
StrayLoad Loss, in W
Intercept Slope Correlation Factor Point Dek
•led
Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at t s
Conected Power Across Air Gap, in W
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
Corrected Speed, in r/min
Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W> at t s
Corrected Stray Load Loss, in W
Corrected Total Loss, in W
Corrected Shaft Power, in W
Efficiency, in %
Power Factor, in %
The Summary of Characteristics shall be presented as with Form A in 9.2. For additional guidance, see 9.1 .1 .
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
63
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
9.7 Form B12Method B1 calculations
Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (1) Ohms @ (2) °C From 6.5.1.1
Specified Stator Temperature, (t s ), (3) °C in a 25 °C Ambient, From 3.3.2 c)
Item
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
Source or Calculation
4
Ambient Temperature, in "C
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
5
Stator Winding Temp, t t , in °C
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
6
Frequency, in Hz
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
7
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
= 120 x (6) / number of poles
8
Speed, in r/min
*= (7) ™ (9)
9
Slip Speed, in r/min
*= (7)  (8)
10
Slip in p.u.
= (9)/ (7)
11
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
12
Line Current, in A
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
13
Stator Power, in W
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
14
Core Loss, in W
From 5.3.5 at voltage equal to (1 1)
15
Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t t
= J.5x(12) 2 x(])x{A J +(5)l/A ] + (2)]}
\6
Power Across Air Gap, in W
(13)(14)(15)foramolor
= (13) + (14) + (15) for a generator
17
Rotor./ 2 /? Loss, in W
= (16)x(10)
38
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
From 5.5.4
19
Total Conventional Loss, in W
= (14) + (15) + (17) + (18)
20
Torque, in Nm
From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4
21
Dynamometer Correction, in Nm
From test per 5.6.1 .2, if needed
22
Corrected Torque, in Nm
= (20) + (21)
23
Shaft Power, in W
= (22) x (8)/ 9.549
24
Apparent Total Loss, in W
= (13) (23) for a motor
= (23)  (1 3) for a generator
25
StrayLoad Loss, in W
(24) (19)
Intercept (26) Slope (27) Correlation Factor (28) Point Deleted (29)
(26), (27), (28) & (29) from the linear regression analysis of (25) & (22) entries as described in 6.4.2.7
30
Stator J 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
= 1.5x(16) 2 x0)x{L*i+(3)]/[*]+(2)J}
31
Corrected Power Across Air Gap. in W
= (13) (14) (30)
32
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
= (10)x[* J +(3)]/[A 1 + (5)]
33
Corrected Speed, in r/min
= (7) x [1.00 (32)]
34
Rotor l 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
= (31)x(32)
35
Corrected StrayLoad Loss, in W
= (27) x (22) 2
36
Corrected Total Loss, in W
= (14) + (18) + (30) +(34) + (35)
37
Corrected Shaft Power, in W
= (13) (36)
38
Efficiency, in %
=.100(37)/(13)faramotor
= 100(13)/(37) for a generator
39
Power Factor, in %
= 100 x (13)/ [1.732 x (11) x (12).]
* Enter the measured speed or measured slip speed for each test point on the proper line and use the formula provided to calculate the
other parameter. In (15), (30), and (32), select k] based on conductor material. See 5.2.1 and 5.3.2. See 9.1.1 for Summary of
Characteristics.
64
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
9.8 Form CMethod C
Type
Frequency„
JDesign _
.Volts .
Degrees C Temperature Rise .
_ Frame _
_ Speed r/min_
. Time Rating,
Jip/kW .
Phase _
_Serial No. _
Model No._
Ml
Vra^ <^ld ^\A<* Windina Resistance. Ret ween Terminals Ohms @ °C
M2
Average r old Stator Winding Resistance Retween Terminals Ohms @ °C
Total Specified Stator Temperature, t, °C in a 25 °C Ambient
Test Point >
1
2
3
4
5
6
Description
Ml
M2
M 1
M2
M 1
M2
M 1
M2
M 1
M2
M 1
M2
Part A of Test Point  Machine 1 as a motor and Machine 2 as a generator
Ambient Temperature, in °C
Stator Winding Temp, f,, in °C
Frequency, in Hz
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
Speed, in r/min
Slip Speed, in r/min
Slip, in p.u.
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
Volts / Hertz
Line Current, in A
Stator Power, in W
Core Loss, in W
Stator 1 2 R Loss, in W, at i t
Power Across the Air Gap, in W
Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
Total Conventional Loss, in W
Rotor Current, in A
Combined StrayLoad Loss, in W
Stray Load Loss, in W
1
Part B of Test Point Machine 1 as a generator and Machine 2 as a motor
Ambient Temperature, in °C
Stator Winding Temp, t T , in °C
Frequency, in Hz
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
Speed, in r/min
Slip Speed, in r/min
Slip, in p.u.
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
Volts / Hertz
Line Current, in A
Stator Power, in W
Core Loss, in W
Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at /,
Form C, Part 1
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Alf rights reserved.
65
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
Test Point >
1
2
3
4
5
6
Description
M 1
M2
Ml
M2
Ml
M2
Ml
M2
M i
M2
M 1
M2
Power Across the Air Gap, in W
Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
Total Conventional Loss, in W
Rotor Current, in A
Combined StrayLoad Loss, in W
StrayLoad Loss, in W
Machine 1
Machine 2
]
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
Average Rotor Current, in A
Average StrayLoad Loss, in W
Linear Regression Analysis
Machine I.  intercept Slope Correlation Factor
Machine 2  Intercept Slope Conelation Factoi
Corrected Values
Stator7 2 tf Loss,in W, at ^
Power Across Air Gap, in W
Slip, in p.u.
Speed, in r/min
Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W, at /\,
Stray Load Loss, in W
Total Loss, in W
Shaft Power, in W
Efficiency, in %
Summary of Characteristics
Machine 1
Load, in % of rated
25
50
75
100
125
150
Power Factor, in %
Efficiency, in %
Speed, in r/min
Line Current, in A
Summary of Characteristics
Machine 2
Load, in % of rated
25
50
75
100
125
150
Power Factor, in %
Efficiency, in %
Speed, in r/min
Line Current, in A
Form C, Part 2
66
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
9.9 Form C2~Method C Calculations
Type .
Frequency.
.Design „
_ Frame _
Volts .
_Speed r/m.in_
„hp/kW .
„Phase„
Degrees C Temperature Rise .
Time Ratine _
„Serial No. .
Model No..
Ml
Average Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals ____(1) Ohms @ (2) °C
M2
Average Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (3) Ohms @ _(4) D C
Total Specified Stator Temperature, t s (5) °C in a 25 °C Ambient I
Item
Test Point>
l,Etc.
Ml
M2
Description
Machine 1
Machine 2
Part A of Test Point  Machine 1 as a motor and Machine 2 as a generator
6
26
Ambient Temperature, in "C
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
7
27
Stator Winding Temp, t t , in °C
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
8
28
Frequency, in Hz
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
9
29
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
(9)= 1 20 x (8) /No. of poles
(29)= 120 x (28) /No. of poles
10
30
Speed, in r/min
From each test point, from 6.6.1.3
From each lest point, from 6.6.1 .3
11
31
Slip Speed, in r/min
From 6.6.1.3 or =(9) (10)
From 6.6.1.3 or =(30) (29)
12
32
Slip, in p.u.
(12) = (ll)/(9)
(32) = (31)/ (29)
13
33
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
14
34
Volts / Hertz
(14) = (13)/ (8)
(34) = (33)/ (28)
15
35
Line Current, in A
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
16
36
Stator Power, in W
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
17
37
Core Loss, in W
From 6.6.2.3 for machine 1
From 6.6.2.3 for machine 2
18
38
Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at/,
From 6.6.2.4 for machine 1
From 6.6.2.4 for machine 2
19
39
Power Across the Air Gap, in W
(19) = (16) (17) (18)
(39) = (36) + (37) + (38)
20
40
Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W
(20) = (19) x (12)
(40)  (39) x (32)
21
41
Friction and Windage Loss, in VV
From 6.6.2.2 for machine 1
From 6.6.2.2 for machine 2
22
42
Total Conventional Loss, in W
(22) = (17) + (18) + (20) + (21)
(42) = (37) + (38) + (40) + (41)
23
43
Rotor Current, in A
For each test point using Eq. 71
For each test point using Eq. 71
24
Combined StrayLoad Loss, in W
(24) = (16)  (36) (22)  (42)
25
44
StravLoad Loss, in W
(25) = (20) x (24) / [(20) + (40)]
(44) = (24) (25)
Part B of Test Point  Machine 1 as a generator and Machine 2 as a motor
45
63
Ambient Temperature, in °C
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
46
64
Stator Winding Temp, t t , in °C
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
47
65
Frequency, in Hz
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
48
66
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
(48) = 1 20 x (47) / No. of poles
(66) = 120 x (65) / No. of poles
49
67
Speed, in r/min
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
50
68
Slip Speed, in r/min
From 6.6.1.3 or =(49) (48)
From 6.6.1.3 or = (66) ~ (67)
51
69
Slip, in p.u.
(51) = (50)/ 48)
(69) = (68) / (66)
52
70
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
53
71
Volts / Hertz
(53) = (52) / (47)
(71) = (70)/ (65)
54
72
Line Current, in A
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
55
73
Stator Power, in W
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3
56
74
Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at t t
From 6.6.2.4 for machine 1
From 6.6.2.4 for machine 2
57
75
Power Across the Air Gap, in W
(57) = (55) + (17) + (56)
(75) = (73)  (37)  (74)
Form C2, Parti
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AH rights reserved.
61
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
Ml
M2
Description
Machine 1
Machine 2
57
75
Power Across the Air Gap. in W
(57) = (55)+ (17) + (56)
(75) = (73)  (37)  (74)
58
76
Rotor 1 2 R Loss, in \V
(58) = (57) x (51)
(76) = (75) x (68)
59
77
Total Conventional Loss, in W
(59) = (17) + (21)+ (56) + (58)
(77) = (37) + (41) + (74) + (76)
60
78
Rotor Current, in A
For each test point using Eq. 71
For each test point using Eq. 71
61
Combined StrayLoad Loss, in W
(61) = (55) (73) (59) (77)
62
79
Stray Load Loss, in W
(62) = (61) ~ (79)
(79) = (76) x (61) /[ (58) + (76)]
Combination of Part A and Part B Data
Machine 1
Machine 2
80
82
Average Rotor Current, in A
(80) = [(23) + (60)]/2
(82) = [.(43) + (78)] / 2
81
83
Average StrayLoad Loss, in W
(81) = 1(25) + (62)J/2
(83) =[(44) + (79)]/ 2
Linear Regression Analysis
Machine 1  Intercept (84) Slope (85) Correlation Factor (86)
Machine 2  Intercept (87) Slope (88) Correlation Factor (89)
Corrected Values
90
99
Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at r s
As in (18) with R at t s
As in (38) with R at t s
91
100
Power Across Air Gap, in W
(91) = (16) (17) (90)
(100) = (36) (37) (99)
92
101
Slip, in p.u.
(12) Corrected as in 5.3.2
(32) Corrected as in 5.3.2
93
102
Speed, in r/min
(93) = (9)x [1.00 (92)]
(102) = (29) x [1.00 (101)]
94
3 03
Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
(94) = (93) x (92)
(103) = (102) x (101)
95
104
StrayLoad Loss, in W
(95) = (85) x (80) 2
(104) = (88)x(82) 2
96
105
Total Loss, in W
(96) = (90) + (94) + (95) + (17) + (21)
(105) = (99) + (103) + (104) + (37) +
(41)
97
106
Shaft Power, in W
(97) = (16) (96)
(106) = (36) (105)
98
107
Efficiency, in %
(98)= 100 x (97) /(1 6)
(107) = 100 x (106)/ (36)
Parentheses, ( ), normally used with equation numbers are not used here to avoid confusion with the form item numbers.
Summary of Characteristics
Machine 1 [Machine 2 similar but not shown here. See Form C.J
Load, in % of rated
25
50
75
100
125
150
Power Factor, in %
Efficiency, in %
Speed, in r/min
Line Current, in A
Plot the line current, speed, and efficiency vs. output watts and then select values for these same quantities at precise load points to
obtain the summary of characteristics. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input
watts. The input power for the power factor calculation is: input power = 100 x output power from curve/efficiency in percent.
Form C2, Part 2
68
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
9.10 Form EMethod EE1
Type
Frequency,
_ Design _
Volts
Degrees C Temperature Rise .
_ Frame _
„Rating .
_ Synchronous r/min _
_Time Ratine ,
_Phase_
_Serial No.
Model No.
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
l
2
3
4
5
6
Ambient Temperature, in °C
tStator Winding Temperature, t u in °C
Frequency, in Hz
Synchronous Speed, n s in r/min
Observed Speed, in r/min
Observed Slip, in r/min
Corrected Slip, in r/min
Coirected Speed, in r/min
LinetoLine Voltage, in V
Line Current, in A
Stator Power, in W
Core Loss, in \V
Winding resistance corrected to t s
Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
Power Across the Gap, in W
Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
Rotor Current, in A
* Stray Load Loss, in W
Total Loss, in W
Shaft Power, in W
Efficiency, in %
Power Factor, in %
♦Method B see 5.7.2 or 5.7.3, Method El See 5.7.4
U t — temperature of stator winding as determined from stator resistance or temperature detectors during test.
Summary of Characteristics
Load, in % of rated
25
50
75
100
125
150
Power Factor, in %
Efficiency, in %
Speed, in r/min
Line Current, in A
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
69
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
9.11 Form E2Method EE1 calculations
Type
Frequency _
Design _
. Frame _
.Volts .
Degrees C Temperature Rise ,
_ Synchronous r/min _
Time Rating
_Raling .
Phase.
Serial No.
Model No.
Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (1) Ohms @ (2) °C From 6.7.1 .1
Specified Stator Temperature, t s , (3) °C in a 25 °C Ambient, From 3.3.2 c)
(Test)(Standard) StrayLoad Loss, (P' SL ) = (4) *in W @, /' 2 , (5) A
Item
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
Source or Calculation
6
Ambient Temperature, in °C
From test of 6.7. 1.2
7
tStator Winding Temp, t t , in °C
From each point of test 6.7.1 .2
8
Frequency, in Hz
Line frequency
9
Synchronous Speed, in r/min
= 1 20 x (8) / number of poles
10
Observed Speed, in r/min
From each point of test 6.7. 1 .2
11
Observed Slip, in p.u.
=E(9)(10).]/(9)
12
Corrected Slip, in p.u.
(10) corrected per 5.3.2
13
Corrected Speed, in r/min
U~(12)jx(9)
14
Line to Line Voltage, in V
From each point of test 6.7.1 .2
15
Line Current, in A
From each point of test 6.7.1 .2
16
Stator Power, in W
From each point of test 6.7. 1 .2
17
Core Loss, in W
From 6.7.2.3
18
Winding resistance corrected to t s
Correct (1) per 5.2.1
19
Stator 1 2 R Loss, in W, at t s
= 1.5x(15) 2 x(18)
20
Power Across the Gap, in W
= (16) (17) (19)
21
Rotor l 2 R Loss, in W
= (12)x(20)
22
Friction and Windage Loss, in W
= From 6.7.2.2
23
Rotor Current, in A
From Equation 23 using (15) and /
24
StrayLoad Loss, in W
See 5.7.2.5 for Method E or 5.7.4 for Method El
25
Total Loss, in W
= (17) + (19) + (21) + (22) + (24)
26
Shaft Power, in W
For motor: = (16) (25)
For generator: = (16) + (25)
27
Efficiency, in %
For motor: = 100 x (26) / (16)
For generator: = 100 x (16) / (26)
28
Power Factor, in %
= 100 x (16) /[1. 732 x(14)x(15)]
T/ ; ~ temperature of stator winding as determined from stator resistance or temperature detectors during test.
Parentheses, ( ), normally used with equation numbers are not used here to avoid confusion with the form item numbers.
70
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
9.12 Form FMethods F, F1, C/F, E/F, and E1/F1
Serial No.
Type Rating.
_ Voltage „
.Model No. .
_ Synchronous Speed .
IEEE
Std 11 22004
Phase
..Frequency _
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
1
2
3
4
5
6
A"
Slip in p.u.
R 2 ls
Effective rotor resistance
X 2
Rotor reactance
z?
Rotor impedance
G x
Rotor conductance
G fc
Core conductance
G
Rotor & mag. circuit conductance
B 2
Rotor susceptance
B M
Magnetizing susceptance
B
Rotor & magnetic circuit susceptance
r 2 2
Rotor & magnetizing circuit admittance
R s
Rotor & magnetic circuit resistance
«i
Stator resistance per phase
R
Total resistance
x s
Rotor & magnetic circuit reactance
X\
Stator reactance
X
Total reactance
z
Total impedance
'l
Stator current
h
Rotor current
Stator power
Rotor power
Stator I 2 R loss
Pi,
Core loss
Rotor l 2 R loss
p f
Friction & Windage loss
P S L
StrayLoad loss
Total losses
Shaft power, in W
Efficiency in %
Power factor in %
Speed in r/min
Torque in Nm

Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
71
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
9.13 Form F2Methods F, F1, C/F, E/F, and E1/F1 calculations
Serial No.
Type Rating _
. Model No. .
.Voltage
. Synchronous Speed „
. Phase .
.Frequency .
Before starting calculation, fill in following items, obtained from previous tests:
R 2 = (I) V = phase volts (2) P' S L (3) at Vi (4) and n s (5) also all the items below that are
marked with an asterisk. (n lV = synchronous speed)
Assume a value of slip, s, corresponding to expected full load speed for full load point and proportional values for other loads. For
motor operation, a is positive. For generator operation, s is negative. Numbers in ( ) represent item numbers.
Item
Description (Motoring)(Generating)
Source or Calculation
6
s
Slip in p.u.
Assume values for each load point
7
R 2 /s
Effective rotor resistance
(7) = (l)/(6)
*8
*2
Rotor reactance
From equivalent circuit, see 5.9
9
z 2 2
Rotor impedance [Quantity squared]
(9) = (7) 2 + (8) 2
10
Oi
Rotor conductance
(10) = (7)/ (9)
*1I
G fe
Core conductance
From equivalent circuit, see 5.9
12
G
Rotor & magnetic circuit conductance
(12) = (.10) + (11)
13
B 2
Rotor susceptance
(13) (8)/ (9)
*14
~B M
Magnetizing susceptance
From equivalent circuit, see 5.9
\5
B
Rotor & magnetic circuit susceptance
(15) = (13) + (14)
16
V2 2
Rotor & magnetizing circuit admittance [Quantity squared]
(16) = (12) 2 + (15)2
17
/? ?
Rotor & magnetic circuit resistance
(I7) = (12)/(J6)
*18
*i
Stator resistance per phase
From tests, see 5.9
19
R
Total resistance
(19) = (17) + (18)
20
X *
Rotor & magnetic circuit reactance
(20) = (15)/ (16)
*21
*\
Stator reactance
From equivalent circuit, see 5.9
22
X
Total reactance
(22) = (20) + (21)
23
z
Total impedance
(23) = square root of [ (1 9) 2 + (22) 2 j
24
h
Stator current
(24) = (2) / (23)
25
h
Rotor current
(25) = (24) / square root of 1(9) x (16) J
26
Stator power
(26) = 3x(24) 2 x(19)
27
Rotor power
(27) = 3 x (25) 2 x (7)
28
Stator I 2 R loss
(28) = 3x(24) 2 x(18)
29
Pk
Core loss
(29) = 3x(24) 2 x(ll)/(l6)
30
Rotor 1 2 R loss
(30) = (6) x (27)
*31
p f
Friction & Windage loss
From tests, see 9.14
32
PSL
StrayLoad loss
(32) = (3)x.(25)/(4)] 2
33
Total losses
(33) = (28) + (29) + (30) + (31) + (32)
34
Shaft power, in W
(34) = (26)  (33)
35
Efficiency in %
For Motoring: (35) = 1 00 x (34) / (26)
For Generating: (35) = 100 x (26) / (34)
36
Power factor in %
(36)= 100 x (19)/ (23)
37
Speed in r/min
(37)=(5)x.l(6)J
38
Torque in Nm
(38) = 9.549 x (34)/ (37)
72
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
9.14 Test and equivalent circuit results
Serial No.
Machine
Type
R aline
Vollaee
IEEE
Std 1122004
^Synchronous Speed_
Model No. _
^Frequency _
_ Phases _
Summary of Tests
No Load
Line Current, / .
in A
Stator Power, fV
inW
Impedance Data by Method of 5.9. 1
Frequency
Hz
Line Volts
Line Current, /,
in A
Stator Power, P,
inW
Constants and Summary of Equivalent Circuit Parameters
V\
volts per phase
R\
ohms
R 2
ohms
Rfe
ohms
*1
ohms
^2
ohms
(X { +Xt)
ohms
Bm
Siemens
Gr,
Siemens
Pf
# watts See 5.5.4.
Pk
#watts See 5.5.5.
Psi
# * watts at Ii = <
N,
r/min
amperes
*See 5.7.2, 5.7.3, or 5.7.4.
# When used in Method F. Fl , C/F. E/F, or El/FJ tests, these quantities are for the total machine and all others are per phase.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
73
IEEE
Std 1 1 22004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
Annex A
(informative)
Bibliography
[Bl] 1 C.FR Part 431 , Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ''Energy
Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures, Labeling, and Cer
tification Requirements, for Electric Motors, Einal Rule," Federal Register, Vol. 64, No. 192, pp 54114
54172, October 5, 1999.
[B2] API Std 541 , 4th Edition: Form Wound Squirrel Cage Induction Motors— 500 Horsepower and Larger,
2003.
[B3] I'EC 600349: Rotating Electrical MachinesPart 9: Noise Limits, 1997.
[B4J IEC 6003414: Rotating Electrical Machines— Part 14: Mechanical vibration of certain machines with
shaft heights 56mm and higher— Measurement, evaluation and limits of vibration, 1996.
B5] IEEE Std 1 ,M 1 986, IEEE Standard General Principles for Temperature Limits in the Rating of Electric
Equipment and for the Evaluation of Electrical Insulation.
[B6] IEEE Std 4™ 1995 Standard Techniques for HighVoltage Testing.
[B7] NEMA MG1 2003, Motors and Generators.
[B8] NIST Handbook 1 5010, Efficiency of Electric Motors, (EEM).
74 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
Annex B
(informative)
Typical report of test form for routine tests
Name of Manufacturer,.
Address of Manufacturer _
Purchaser ,
Date of Test _
Manufacturer's Order No.
Purchaser's Order No.
Nameplate Data
Rated
hp/kW
Service
Factor
Rated Speed
r/min
Phase
Frequency
Hz
Volts
Amperes
Type
Frame
/Temp Rise^
by method
\ Indicated /
/Ambient temp\
and Insulation
\ Class )
Time
Rating
Design
Letter
Code Letter
for Locked
kVA/hp
Test Characteristics
Serial
No.
No Load
Locked Rotor
Wound
Rotor
Open
Circuit
Voltage
High
Poten
tial
Test
Voltage
Stator Winding
Resistance
Between
Terminals
Volts
Fre
quency
Hz
Speed
r/min
Am
peres
Kilo
watts'*
Volts
Fre
quency
Hz "
Am
peres
Kilo
watts*
Ohms
Temp
in
°C
*If measured, optional.
Notes:
Data on test from _
_machine
Approved by _
Date„
(this or duplicate)
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
75
IEEE
Std 1122004
Annex C
(informative)
Typical report of test form
Name of Manufacturer _
Address of Manufacturer _
Serial No.
Model Number..
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
Manufacturer's Order No.
Date of Test
Purchaser's Order No. _
Purchaser
Nameplate Rating
Rated
hp/kW
Service
Factor
Rated Speed
r/min
Phase
Frequency
Hz
Volts
Amperes
Type
Frame
Temperature Rise
Conditions of Test
Temperature Rise °C
Stator
Rotor
Windings
Windings
Hours
Run
Line
Volts
Line
Amperes
Cooling
Air/C
*By
Method
*By
Method
Characteristics
Rated Slip
percent
NoLoad Line
Current, amperes
Secondary Volts
at Standstill
Secondary Amperes per
Ring at Rated Load
Resistance at 25 °C
(between lines), ohms
Prim
Sec
Torque and Starting Torque
High Potential Tests
BreakDown Torque
in #
Locked Rotor Torque
in #
Starting Current
Amperes (locked rotor)
Volts ac for Sec.
with % volts applied
with % volts applied
with % volts applied
Stator
Rotor
Efficiencies and Power Factor
Efficiency, Percent
Power Factor, Percent
Rated Load
75% Load
50% Load
Rated Load
75%; Load
50% Load
* Indicate method as; Thermometer, Thermocouple, Resistance, or Embedded Detector. # Indicate units: Nm or lbfft
Notes:
Data on test from
(this or duplicate)
. machine Approved by „
Date
76
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 22004
Annex D
(informative)
Units of measure
D.1 Units of measure
This standard uses metric units of measure in accordance with IEEE standard policy. However, this standard
can be used when the units of measure are horsepower, hp, for shaft power, poundforcefeet, lbfft, for the
torque(s) and poundfeet2, lbft2, for inertia. The areas in the specification that need to be modified when
using these customary units and the specific modifications required are covered in D.1.1 through D.l .5.
D.1.1 Mechanical power
D. 1.1.1 Load test
The mechanical power in the load test as calculated in 5.6.1 .1 is in watts. With the shaft torque, T, being
measured in lbfft instead of Nm, the k 2 factor in Equation (10) is 7.043 instead of 9.549. See D.l .2.1 .
D.1.1. 2 Output power
The output power of a motor (input power of a generator) can be presented in horsepower by simple conver
sion of the calculated corrected stator power of the test forms. This power value as calculated is in watts.
Divide this calculated power by 745.7 and the resulting number is the output power in hp. See Table D.l .
D. 1.2 Torque
D. 1.2.1 Shaft torque
The shaft torque used in the mechanical power calculation of D.l .1 .1 is obtained from Equation (1 1 ), which
starts with the measured shaft torque and applies a dynamometer correction factor, if this correction is
needed. Equation (11) is valid for either unit of torque measure as long as all torques values use the same
units of measure. Using mixed units of measure will always give wrong results and will invalidate the test.
D. 1.2.2 Dynamometer correction
The dynamometer correction is calculated as in 5.6.1.2 using Equation (12). The dynamometer correction
torque, in lbfft, To, is calculated using Equation (12) with k 2 equal to 7.043 and with T A measured in lbfft.
D.1.2.3 Lockedrotor torque
See 7.2.2. The lockedrotor torque can be calculated using Equation (77). Change the value of factor ko to
7.043 and the result of solving Equation (77) will be the maximum lockedrotor torque in lbfft.
D. 1.2.4 Speedtorque curve — Method 1
See 7.3.2.1 . The torque at each load point can be calculated using Equation (78). Change the value of factor
k2 to 7,043 and the result of solving Equation (78) will be the torque in lbfft.
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
77
IEEE
Std 1122004
IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR
D.1.2.5 Speedtorque curve— Method 2
See 7.3.2.2. As in D.l .2.5, the torque at each load point can be calculated using Equation (79). However, the
moment of inertia must be in Ibft 2 . With this and changing the value of factor hi to 7.043, the result of solv
ing Equation (79) will be the torque in lbfft.
D. 1.2.6 Speedtorque curveMethod 3
See 7.3.2.3. The torque at each load point can be calculated using Equation (80). Change the value of factor
kj to 7.043 and use values of motor friction and windage torque, Tf w , in lbfft. Solve Equation (80) for each
speed point and the resulting values will be the torque, T, measured in lbfft.
D.1.3 Test forms
When using customary units, the test forms of Clause 9. should be modified to show the correct units of
measure, lbfft for torque and hp for shaft power, to add additional lines to show shaft power in hp and to
show the correct ki factor in applicable calculations. The changes needed are shown in Table D.l .
Table D.1— Form changes required
Subclause
Form l.D.
Units are:
Item No.
Add line
after No.
Add on new line
Calculation
9.2,9.3
A,A1
lbfft
14,15,16




17
—

*(17) = (16)x(13)/7.043


26
Shaft Power, in hp  =(17)/ 745.7
9.4,9.5
B,B2
lbfft

___
■

1 * (27) = (26) x (12)/ 7.043

43
Shaft Power, in hp [ =(41)/ 745.7
9.6,9.7
Bl,B12
lbfft



23

* (23) = (22) x (8)/ 7.043


39
Shaft Power, in hp
= (37)/ 745.7
9.8,9.9
C,C2


98
Shaft Power, in hp
= (97)/ 7457


107
Shaft Power, in hp
= (106)/ 7457
9.10,9.11
E,E2


28
Shaft Power, in hp  =(26)/ 745 .7
9.12,9.13
F,F1

—
38
Shaft Power, in hp  =(34)/ 745.7
* These calculations are basically unchanged, only the constant has changed because of the use of lbfft units for the
shaft torque.
NOTE— The "new line" for the test forms shown in Table D.l , is for recording the shaft power in horsepower. These
lines are introduced at the bottom of the forms so the Item Numbers that show calculations are not compromised. On the
actual test form, this new line could appear directly after the existing "Shaft Power, in W" listing, if desired.
D.1.4 Assumed strayload loss
The strayload loss to be used with machines being tested by Efficiency Test Methods El , Fl or El/FI is
selected from Table D.2 based on the rated horsepower.
78
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ali rights reserved.
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS
IEEE
Std 1122004
Table D.2— Assumed values for strayload loss
Machine rating
In hp
Strayload loss
percent of rated load
1125
i .8%
126500
1.5%
5012499
i
1.2%
1 2500
and greater
0.9%
The value of strayload loss at rated load [F S l in Equation (22)] , in watts, is equal to the product of the per
cent value of strayload loss in Table D.2, the rated hp, and the conversion factor 745.7 divided by 100.
D.1.5 Resistance reading at shutdown
Table D.3 shows the maximum permitted time between shutting off the power on the temperature test and
obtaining the first stator resistance reading. The maximum delay is selected from Table D.3 based on the
machine horsepower rating.
Table D.3— Maximum time delay in resistance measurements
Machine rating
in hp
Time delay after switching
off power (seconds)
50 or less
30
Above 50 to 200
90
Above 200
120
Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved.
79